History of Bunch - History

History of Bunch - History


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Bunch

Born in Norman County, Minn., 21 January 1919, Kenneth Cecil Bunch enlisted in the Navy in 1937. He served with Scouting Squadrons 42 and 8. He was killed in action 6 June 1942 during the Battle of Midway.

DE-694: dp. 1400; 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 13'6": s. 24 k.:
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" TT.;cl. Buclley

Bunch, (DE-694) was launched 29 May 1943 by Defoe Shipbuilding Co., Bay City, -.Nlieh.;- sponsored by Mrs. Kenneth C. Bunch, widow of Aviation Radionian Bunch; and commissioned 21 August 1943, Lieutenant Comniander A. A. Campbell, USNR, in command.

Between November 1943 and July 1944 Bunch operated as a convoy escort and completed six trans-Atlantic voyages to the United Kingdom. From 12 October through 20 December 1944 she underwent conversion to a high speed transport, having been reclassified APD- 79, 31 July 1944.

Conversion completed, Bunch transited the Panan-ta Canal 26 December 1944 and arrived at Pearl Harbor 15 January 1945. She proceeded across the Pacific, via Eniwetok, I ' '11thi, and Leyte, to Okinawa where after arrival in March she acted as parent ship for an under water demolition team and participated in fire-support and patrol activities. On 4 April she rescued 61 survivors, from Dickerson (APD-21) which had been sunk by a Japanese suicide plane. During May Bunch escorted a convoy to Ulithi and Guam and then returned to Okinawa. She remained in this area until 1 July 194.5 when she departed for the west coast, arriving on the 24th. She underwent overhaul in California until 6 September and then returned to Okinawa via Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok.

Between I October 1945 and 21 February 1946 she operated off Okinawa, China, and Formosa in support of the occupation. Bunch participated in minesweeping operations during November and December 1945. Upon her return to the United States in March 1946 she was assigned to the 19th Fleet to await inactivation. She was placed out of commission in reserve 31 May 1946 at San Diego.

Bunch received two battle stars for her World War II service.


Willow Bunch, R.M. of, No. 42

The Rural Municipality of Willow Bunch No. 42 consists of approximately 12 townships with a taxable assessment of $ 33,871,665.00 in 2004. The administration office is in the Town of Willow Bunch and is composed of a reeve, six councillors and a full-time administrator. The R.M. employs a full-time foreman and three seasonal workers for the maintenance of the municipality .

The R.M.’s focus is on road maintenance, garbage disposal, library services, landfill services, providing safe drinking water in hamlets and fire protection.

EARLY HISTORY

Many immigrants settled in the Willow Bunch area, and new parishes were established. As new needs developed, it was apparent that some type of organization was required. A Local Improvement District was formed and the first meeting of the LID was held on January 4, 1910 at Philip Legare’s Hotel chaired by Pascal Bonneau Jr.

The first members present and elected for the year 1910 were: Pascal Bonneau Jr., Dr. Arsene Godin, Alphonse Dauphinais, Amedee Beaubien, W. Ineson, James Hazlett and A. Saunier. Pascal Bonneau Jr., who passed away on the 29th of January, 1910 was replaced by Amedee Beaubien as president. E.P. De Laforest was hired as secretary treasurer for 1910 and was replaced by Alex P. Beausoleil on January 3, 1911.

Late in 1911, the Province agreed to change the LID to the Rural Municipality of Willow Bunch No. 42 effective January 1, 1912 .

Elections for the first council of the Rural Municipality of Willow Bunch No. 42 took place in December 1911 with the following results: Reeve Treffle Bonneau and councillors O.A. Hainstock, B. Lowman, Alphonse Dauphinais, Peter Kabrud, Joseph Lapointe and Alfred Lalonde.

The council of the day worked hard to establish new roads due to the granting of homesteads. The municipality is 30 x 18 miles. It included the parishes of Willow Bunch and St. Victor and the missions of Little Woody and Kantenville. The first R.M. office was built in 1927 and was administered by Leopold Sylvestre until 1958. A new office was built in 1986. It was designed by Dennis Thorhaug of Willow Bunch and it was built by Phillipon Construction of Willow Bunch.

The R.M. of Willow Bunch No. 42 now includes the organized hamlets of Lisieux and Scout Lake and the Hamlets of Willow Bunch and St. Victor.

A history book of R.M. 42, including Willow Bunch, St Victor, Scout Lake and Lisieux was published in April, 1998. It is a two volume set consisting of approximately 900 family stories, over 1600 photos and 100 various articles of history about organizations, churches, schools, cemeteries, war veterans, etc.

History of the Community of Willow Bunch

On a provincial scale, Willow Bunch is enormously rich in history. It all began

in 1870 when the Metis came to Willow Bunch to settle with their families. At that time the little Saskatchewan town was called “Talle -de-Saules” in honour of the bark from the abundant willow trees in the area used for smoking.

Months later, it was Jean Louis Legare’s turn, an important fur trader in the region, to arrive in Willow Bunch . The French Canadian erected a building which served as both a house and general store. We now recognize him as the Willow Bunch founder because he had a strong leadership in the community and also succeeded in uniting people from Quebec, New England and Europe under a common spirit.

Legare ‘s first experience in fur trading was in the area between Wood Mountain and Willow Bunch, a distance of approximately 40 miles known as La Montagne de Bois. Jean Louis Legare was hired by his Metis employer, Ouellette, at a salary of $25.00 a month to establish a business in this area. He organized a camp at Little Woody which is approximately 15 miles south of Willow Bunch and spent the winter of 1870-1871 collecting furs. In the spring he travelled to Pembina to sell the furs he had collected over the winter months. He continued on to St Francois-Xavier, Manitoba, where he became a partner with George Fisher, who had previously been interested in establishing a post in the Willow Bunch Area. Fisher provided the merchandis, the horses and carts, two men, and promised Legare one third of the profits. Legare and his party arrived to establish a trading post in the area 3 miles east of the Police Post at Wood Mountain. He remained there for 9 years.

During the fall of 1879, a vast prairie fire destroyed all of the grazing area in a considerable portion of La Montagne de Bois, resulting in many of the Metis moving east and setting up camp in the St. Victor and Willow Bunch areas. In 1880 Legare constructed a temporary building (a store and adjoining house ), the first wooden house in Willow Bunch. A private water line existed to the Legare Home. Legare’s efforts resulted in many settlers coming to this area.

In 1884, Legare drove one hundred horses to Manitoba and received forty five head of domesticated cattle in return. This began the establishment of ranches in the Willow Bunch area and served as a viable means of livelihood for some of the Metis there.

Nevertheless, many Metis remained in half starving condition owing to the collapse of the trade in buffalo skins. Many Metis moved northward and set up camps in the Moose Jaw area. The citizens of that little town became perturbed. In response Lieutenant -Governor Dewdney came to Moose Jaw and telegraphed Jean Louis Legare to come from Willow Bunch to induce these Metis to return south. Legare told the Metis that he wanted them to take something back to Willow Bunch and that it was top secret. Of course, they were not happy when they reached Willow Bunch and found out that they had been brought here under false pretenses.

Legare was able to settle them down by hiring forty men, which represented all Metis families in the area, at $2.00 a day as scouts. Legare scattered these families around at such a distance apart as to render them harmless.

In 1891 Legare bartered some of his horses for dairy cattle with the idea of starting a dairy herd. He also constructed a cheese factory which failed due to distant markets and economics of the time. After losing 350 cows from his dairy herd in the winter of 1893-1894, he sold the remaining 1,125 and puchased 2100 head of horses.This was also a disaster because of a long cold and stormy winter.

Legare became the first postmaster in 1898. He held this position for 20 years until he passed away on February 1, 1918 at the age of seventy-six. Jean Louis Legare was buried in Willow Bunch’s first cemetary (located within the town). A regional park has been named after this gentleman for his great contributions to this community.

THE WILLOW BUNCH GIANT

On January 9, 1881, Edouard Beaupre was baptized and was the first child to have his name in the church register. Edourad Beaupre grew to be eight feet three inches tall and became famous for his height. People used to call him the “Giant Beaupre“. He was the eldest of twenty children born to Gaspard and Florestine (nee Piche) Beaupre. That same day he was baptized in the newly established parish of East Willow Bunch (St. Ignatius Roman Catholic Church ) by Father St Germain. At age 9, Edouard was six feet tall and by seventeen he was 7𔃻″. At the peak of his growth, Edouard’s height was recorded at 8′ 2.5”. Because of his families’ poverty, Edouard, at the age of seventeen, decided to exhibit his Herculean size and strength to help his family financially. Mr. Beaupre fell severely ill while performing in the Barnum and Bailey Circus at the St. Louis World’s Fair. He passed away July 3, 1904 from a pulmonary hemorrhage at age twenty three. Many of his personnel items are housed in the Willow Bunch Musuem in a room referred to as “The Giants Bedroom “. There is his nine foot bed, his shirt, ring, collar, cuff-links and bottle opener.

Slowly, Willow Bunch developed. At that time, the economic stability was based mostly on ranching, being that the buffalo had disappeared almost completely from this area. Cattle were introduced and then in about 1915 the tilling of soil and the growing of agricultural crops became the way of life. History shows us that it wasn’t easy because of drought, prairie fires, severe winters and rustlers.

The Jean Louis Legare Regional Park is a beautiful park nestled in the natural coulees of the Willow Bunch Valley. One can visit the surroundings where the first Metis settlers stayed and enjoy the services of electrified sites, tent camping, showers, flush toilets and sewage dump. The park has beautiful walking trails and a children’s playground.

THE WILLOW BUNCH GOLF COURSE

The Willow Bunch Golf Course is located 2km SW of town in the Jean Louis Legare Regional Park. It is situated in a long wide deep ravine with elevation changes up to 250 feet between the fairways and the surrounding hills that were formed by the last ice age. The fairways are lined with 40-50 foot trees of White Poplar, Ash, Maple,and American Elm which are all native to the valley. The course has a par of 36 and a length of 2980 yards.

Our museum is located in the former convent school built by the Sisters of the Cross in 1914. The Giant’s ” footprints” on the sidewalk lead to his life size replica and a display of his photographs and personal belongings. Born in Willow Bunch in 1881 Giant Edouard Beaupre grew to a height of 8𔃽″. He died in St. Louis, Missouri at age 23 while touring with a circus. His ashes are buried on the museum grounds. You can learn about our first settlers: the Metis who established wintering sites in our coulees in 1870 and Jean Louis Legare who established a fur trading post in 1880. You can relive the story of Sitting Bull and his famous return to the United States in 1881, accompanied by Metis scouts and Jean Louis Legare.

SYLVAN VALLEY REGIONAL PARK AND THE ST. VICTOR PETROGLYPHS

Sylvan Valley Regional Park and St. Victor Petroglyphs are near St. Victor . Residents of this area have long enjoyed this beautiful regional park and a committee was formed named the “Friends of the Petroglyphs” who work to preserve and promote this very interesting area of prehistoric life depicted by rock carvings.


Why the 'Radical' Brady Bunch Almost Never Got Made

It’s been burned into generations of brains: the story of a lovely lady and a man named Brady whose marriage creates a blended family of eight (not counting Alice, Tiger or Cousin Oliver). Today, The Brady Bunch is viewed as classic, family-friendly entertainment—not scandalous or challenging fare by any means.

But though the show is a beloved, safe-seeming staple for modern audiences, it was groundbreaking when it was first conceived—so groundbreaking that it almost never got made.

The history of The Brady Bunch begins in 1966, when TV producer Sherwood Schwartz read a news item in the Los Angeles Times that claimed 30 percent of marriages involved children from a previous relationship. Now, in 1966 this was a new phenomenon,” he later recalled. “Television was loaded with happily married couples, and single widows and widowers, but there wasn’t any show that revolved around the marital amalgamation of two families.”

The opening title and sequence of The Brady Bunch.

Schwartz knew how to create a hit show—his Gilligan’s Island had been well-received. And the statistic stuck with him. At the time, loosening social mores around sex and marriage meant that divorce was becoming more and more common. In 1966, there were 1.85 million marriages and 499,000 divorces. The number had been creeping up for decades after a post-war divorce boom (610,000 divorces in 1946) and a subsequent settling of divorce rates that hovered around 400,000 until the beginning of the 1960s.

All those divorces, and changing views on whether people should marry at all, produced new family structures that Schwartz felt would resonate with audiences. So he wrote a pilot about a widower who falls in love with a divorcee, gets married and thencombines their two families in one house for endless situations and laughs.

But though Schwartz had proven television success and a solid script, Yours and Mine was not beloved by executives at any of the three major television networks. Though he received initial interest, no one seemed willing to take a chance on a show whose premise was so new. The script languished on the shelf and Schwartz moved on to other endeavors.

The 1968 film &aposYours, Mine and Ours&apos starring Lucille Ball and Henry Fonda.

Then, in 1968, the film Yours, Mine and Ours hit theaters. Based on a true story, the film follows Frank Beardsley, a U.S. Navy officer with ten children, and Helen North, a nurse with eight children. Both of their spouses have died, and despite their fear of blending their large broods, their mutual attraction leads to marriage and a massive new family. The couple learn to manage their 18 children (with one on the way) through a combination of hilarious mistakes and military tactics.

Starring Lucille Ball as North and Henry Fonda as Beardsley, the film was not received well by critics. But the public loved it, and it grossed over $25 million in box office receipts (over $180 million in modern dollars).

Two years after he pitched the networks, Schwartz’s idea seemed long dead. The movie—with a premise extremely close to the one he had developed𠅌ould have been the nail in its coffin. Instead, it resurrected the idea at ABC.

Later, Schwartz recalled the movie as “serendipity”: a chance to have another piece of intellectual property prove the success of his concept for him. 𠇊 big hit in another medium [gives] executives an 𠆎xcuse for failure,’” he wrote in his 2010 book on the Brady Bunch.

Now that ABC/Paramount knew the public was interested in stories about big, blended families, Schwartz had an in. The network ordered 13 shows and was set for a 1969 premiere. The film had helped greenlight the TV show, but the similarities between both sparked potential legal trouble for Schwartz. Since it was based on a true story, Schwartz knew he could not allege that Yours Mine and Ours had copied his idea.

Instead, the film’s producer threatened Schwartz with a lawsuit after The Brady Bunch’s 1969 premiere. Schwartz fired back with a letter that pointed to the initial name of his pilot—Yours and Mine. “You called your movie Yours, Mine and Ours by adding a kid of their own,” Schwartz wrote. “Just be happy I didn’t sue you.”

Producer Sherwood Schwartz attends a ceremony honoring him with a star at the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2008.

Alberto E. Rodriguez/Getty Images

That letter was enough to put the potential lawsuit to bed. The Brady Bunch ran for 177 episodes and still enjoys a healthy life in reruns.

But though the show filmed its first episodes under the name The Brady Bunch, it almost lost its name because of another film. The Wild Bunch, a Western starring William Holden, Ernest Borgnine and others, was also released in 1969. It was a shocking take on the Western genre, and received criticism (and big box office returns) for its cutting-edge film techniques and its graphic violence.

Today, The Wild Bunch is considered one of the best Westerns of all time. In 1969, however, ABC/Paramount executives worried that audiences would associate the word 𠇋unch” in its newest sitcom’s title with marauding vigilante justice and brutal violence. “They were afraid the viewers would get the idea that the show was a western or about a mob,” Schwartz recalled. He lobbied hard for the name, and won. If anything, The Brady Bunch managed to remove the word’s gritty connotation, associating 𠇋unch” with sanitized, family-friendly and low-stakes comedy instead.

The Brady Bunch had a long shelf life and has even been parodied in two 1990s films that have become cult classics in their own right. But what of the movie that helped it get made? Yours, Mine and Ours&apos post-1960s life has been more uneven. First came the 2005 remake that grossed a respectable $72 million worldwide, but was almost universally panned by the critics.

More recently, one of Frank Beardsley’s real-life sons has claimed life was nothing like the movies. In 2013, he accused his stepfather of abusive behavior in a book, True North. (North’s claims were disputed by other family members). Unlike the Brady family, who always made up by the end of the show, real life is more complicated than sitcom fiction. 


Willow Bunch history examined

During a recent tour to promote his new book, The History of the Metis of Willow Bunch, Ron Rivard was asked the same question over and over again-how could anyone write a 230-page book about a part of Saskatchewan history that, as fascinating as it is, has been ignored by most historians?

"This history of Willow Bunch is rich," said Rivard, a Metis businessman and writer based in Saskatoon. "There are so many things that have gone on there that are noteworthy to the history of Saskatchewan and the North American West. And I wanted to provide a Metis point of view."

That's a viewpoint, he said, that's almost been lost, because almost all historians have ignored the Metis' impact on society in the West during the 19th century.

"My parents are from Willow Bunch. Their parents are from Willow Bunch. My roots are there. Nothing has been written, from any accounts that I have read, that are favourable towards the Metis. I wanted to make some changes to that portrayal."

To ignore the Metis, he said, would be to ignore the people who were hunters, trappers, guides, merchants, warriors, peacemakers, and translators-the kinds of people who formed the backbone of the fur trade, who were the leaders in society until the railroad and an Ottawa-based government pushed them aside.

"We had our own form of government, our own institutions. We taught our own children in our own way," Rivard said.

He and Catherine Littlejohn, a writer and teacher who co-wrote the book with Rivard, gathered the materials they used in the book while they were both working on social and economic development projects in the Willow Bunch area.

The book describes the history of the Metis people of Willow Bunch, who lived near the Big Muddy Valley, near the present-day border between Saskatchewan and Montana.

"We started with the history of the Metis people, starting with the Red River settlements," he said. "Many of the Willow Bunch Metis people are descended from those of the Red River."

Many moved to the Willow Bunch area to follow the herds of free-ranging buffalo, while others moved to the district after the 1869 Red River uprising.

The book tells of the Metis' encounters with the Sioux peoples, who were involved with their own battles with the United States military. After the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876, Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa Sioux fled across the border, near where the Willow Bunch Metis settled. When Inspectors Walsh and McLeod of the North West Mounted Police met Sitting Bull, Metis men acted as translators. When food ran low and the Canadian government tried to starve the Sioux people into going back to the U.S., Jean-Louis Legare, who owned the general store in Willow Bunch, provided Sitting Bull's people with supplies. But it was the Metis people who stocked Legare.

During the Saskatchewan Rebellion of 1885, many Willow Bunch Metis headed to Batoche to aid their relatives in defending Louis Riel's provisional government.

"We found accounts of Gabriel Dumont and Riel meeting in Willow Bunch," Rivard said. "The federal government made deliberate efforts to keep the Willow Bunch Metis at home. They were hired by government officials to do the scouting along the border, in order to prevent them from joining the battle."

The fall of Batoche is generally regarded as the beginning of the end of the Metis' political and social influence in Western Canada. In Willow Bunch, the end came in the early 1900s, when priests came from France to run the mission, The Sisters of the Cross.

Unlike the priests from Quebec who promoted Catholicism to the Metis people, the priests from France had no respect for Metis culture, and regarded the people as savages.

"From my observation, this marked the changing point where Metis people perceived their culture, their language, and the way they lived their lives," Rivard said. "The priests called us all those stereotypes."


The Code of Hammurabi (c. 1700 BC) mentioned a term Sal-zikrum which translates to 'man-woman', in reference to women who were allowed to marry other women, [1] and were able to inherit the same amount as their brothers. [2] Another term Sal-nu-bar referred to women who were allowed to marry, but were forbidden to have children, so they brought other women with them to bear children however, they could have children of their own, but they have to keep it as a secret, or cast them out as Sargon's mother did. [2] In addition, an old Assyrian text indicated that two women, who might have been two widows of a dead father, had a betrothal contract for their "daughter". [3]

Homosexuality in ancient Egypt was present among women, as written in the Dream Book of Carlsberg papyrus XIII: "If a woman dreams that a woman has intercourse with her, she will come to a bad end". [4] Nevertheless, women during the New Kingdom enjoyed in a relaxed and intimate atmosphere, the company of other female servants being scantily clad or naked. [5]

The evidence about female homosexuality in the ancient Greek world is limited, with it being hardly mentioned in extant Greek literature. [6] Most surviving sources from the classical period come from Athens, and they are without exception written by men. At least among these Athenian men, the discussion and depiction of female homosexual activity seems to have been taboo. [7] Kenneth Dover suggests that, due to the role played by the phallus in ancient Greek men's conceptions of sexuality, female homosexual love was not explicitly defined as a sexuality or category by the authors of our surviving sources. [8]

Nonetheless, there are a few references to female homosexuality in ancient Greek literature. Two poets from the archaic period, Sappho and Alcman, have been interpreted as writing about female homosexual desire. Alcman wrote hymns known as partheneia, [note 1] which discuss attraction between young women. Though it is ambiguous, historians have considered the attraction in question to be erotic or sexual. [9] At roughly the same time, Sappho's poems discuss her love for both men and women. For instance, in Sappho's Ode to Aphrodite, the poet asks Aphrodite for aid in wooing another woman. It is noticeable that the fragment describes Sappho both giving to and receiving sexual contact from the same partner, in contrast with the rigid active/passive partner dichotomy observed in Greek male homosexual relationships. [10] Only one fragment of Sappho's poetry, Sappho 94, contains a clear mention of female homosexual acts. [11]

In classical Athens, the idea of homosexual women is briefly mentioned in the Speech of Aristophanes in Plato's Symposium. [12] Later references to female homosexuality in Greek literature include an epigram by Asclepiades, which describes two women who reject Aphrodite's "rules" but instead do "other things which are not seemly". [13] Dover comments on the "striking" hostility shown in the epigram to female homosexuality, contrasting it with Asclepiades' willingness to discuss his own homosexual desire in other works, suggesting that this apparent male anxiety about female homosexuality in ancient Greece is the reason for our paucity of sources discussing it. [14]

In Greek mythology, the story of Callisto has been interpreted as implying that Artemis and Callisto were lovers. [15] The myth of the Amazons has also been interpreted as referring to female homosexual activities. [16]

Female-female relationships or sexual activities were occasionally depicted on Greek art. An early example of this is a plate from archaic Thera, which appears to show two women courting. [17] An Attic red figure vase in the collection of the Tarquinia National Museum in Italy shows a kneeling woman fingering the genitals of another woman, in a rare example of sexual activity between women being explicitly portrayed in Greek art. [17]

Sappho is the most often mentioned example of an ancient Greek woman who may have actually engaged in sexual acts with women. Her sexuality has been debated by historians, with some such as Denys Page arguing that she was attracted to women, while others, such as Eva Stigers, arguing that the descriptions of love between women in Sappho's writings are not evidence for her own sexuality. [18] Some historians have gone so far as to argue that Sappho's circle were involved in female homosexuality as a kind of initiation ritual. [19] The earliest evidence of Sappho's reputation for homosexual desire comes from the Hellenistic period, with a fragment of a biography found in the Oxyrhynchus Papyri which mentions that Sappho is criticised for being "gynaikerastria". [note 2] [20]

Similarly, some find evidence in Plutarch that Spartan women engaged in homosexual activities, though Plutarch wrote many centuries after classical Greece. In Plutarch's biography of Lycurgus of Sparta, part of his Parallel Lives, the author claims that older Spartan women formed relationships with girls that were similar to the erastes/eromenos relationships that existed between some older and younger male Greeks. [17] Sarah Pomeroy believes that Plutarch's depiction of homosexual relationships between Spartan women is plausible. For instance, she argues, in the girls' choirs that performed the partheneia of Alcman, homosexual relationships between the girls would have "flourished". [21]

The lesbian love story between Iphis and Ianthe, in Book IX of Ovid's the Metamorphoses, is most vivid. When Iphis' mother becomes pregnant, her husband declares that he will kill the child if it is a girl. She bears a girl and attempts to conceal her sex by giving her a name that is of ambiguous gender: Iphis. When the "son" is thirteen, the father chooses a golden-haired maiden named Ianthe as the "boy's" bride. The love of the two girls is written sympathetically:

They were of equal age, they both were lovely,
Had learned the ABC from the same teachers,
And so love came to both of them together
In simple innocence, and filled their hearts
With equal longing.

However, as the marriage draws ever closer, Iphis recoils, calling her love "monstrous and unheard of". The goddess Isis hears the girl's moans and turns her into a boy.

References to love between women are sparse. Phaedrus attempted to explain lesbianism through a myth of his own making: Prometheus, coming home drunk from a party, had mistakenly exchanged the genitals of some women and some men – "Lust now enjoys perverted pleasure." [22]

It is quite clear that paiderastia and lesbianism were not held in equally good light, possibly because of the violation of strict gender roles. Seneca the Elder mentions a husband who killed his wife and her female lover and implies that their crime was worse than that of adultery between a male and female. The Babyloniaca of Iamblichus describes an Egyptian princess named Berenice who loves and marries another woman. This novelist also states that such love is "wild and lawless".

Another example of the gender-sexual worldview of the times was documented in Lucian's Dialogues of the Courtesans, in which Megilla renames herself Megillus and wears a wig to cover her shaved head. She marries Demonassa of Corinth, although Megillus is from Lesbos. Her friend Leaena comments that "They say there are women like that in Lesbos, with faces like men, and unwilling to consort with men, but only with women, as though they themselves were men". Megillus seduces Leaena, who feels that the experience is too disgusting to describe in detail.

In another dialogue ascribed to Lucian, two men debate over which is better, male love or heterosexuality. One man protested that if male affairs were legitimized, then lesbianism would soon be condoned as well, an unthinkable notion. [23]

The apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter describes the punishment of both male and female homosexuals in Hell: [24]

And other men and women being cast down from a great rock fell to the bottom, and again were driven by them that were set over them, to go up upon the rock, and thence were cast down to the bottom and had no rest from this torment. And these were they that did defile their bodies behaving as women: and the women that were with them were they that lay with one another as a man with a woman.

The canonical New Testament usually mentions homosexuality in only general terms (i.e. mentioning both men and women who had engaged in sexual acts with the same sex) and both are equally condemned. Women who'd done this were only mentioned once however. [25]

Europe Edit

In medieval Europe, the Christian Church took a stricter view of same-sex relations between women. Penitentials, developed by Celtic monks in Ireland, were unofficial guidebooks which became popular, especially in the British Isles. These books listed crimes and the penances that must be done for them. For example, ". he who commits the male crime of the Sodomites shall do penance for four years". The several versions of the Paenitentiale Theodori, attributed to Theodore of Tarsus, who became archbishop of Canterbury in the 7th century, make special references to lesbianism. The Paenitentiale states, "If a woman practices vice with a woman she shall do penance for three years". [26] Penitentials soon spread from the British Isles to mainland Europe. The authors of most medieval penitentials either did not explicitly discuss lesbian activities at all, or treated them as a less serious sin than male homosexuality. [27]

The Old French legal treatise Li livres de jostice et de plet (c. 1260) is the earliest reference to legal punishment for lesbianism akin to that for male homosexuality. It prescribed dismemberment on the first two offences and death by burning for the third: a near exact parallel to the penalty for a man, although what "dismemberment" could mean for a medieval woman is unknown. [28] [29] : 13 In Spain, Italy, and the Holy Roman Empire, sodomy between women was included in acts considered unnatural and punishable by burning to death, although few instances are recorded of this taking place. [ citation needed ] In the Holy Roman Empire under Charles V, a law on sexual offences specifically prohibits sex acts between women. [29] : 18

There exist records of about a dozen women in the medieval period who were involved in lesbian sex, as defined by Judith Bennett as same-sex genital contact. All of these women are known through their involvement with the courts, and were imprisoned or executed. [30] An early example of a woman executed for homosexual acts occurred in 1477, when a girl in Speier, Germany, was drowned. [29] : 17 Not all women were so harshly punished, though. In the early fifteenth century, a Frenchwoman, Laurence, wife of Colin Poitevin, was imprisoned for her affair with another woman, Jehanne. She pleaded for clemency on the grounds that Jehanne had been the instigator and she regretted her sins, and was freed to return home after six months imprisonment. [31] A later example, from Pescia in Italy, involved an abbess, Sister Benedetta Carlini, who was documented in inquests between 1619 and 1623 as having committed grave offences including a passionately erotic love affair with another nun when possessed by a Divine male spirit named "Splenditello". She was declared the victim of a "diabolical obsession" and placed in the convent's prison for the last 35 years of her life. [32]

However, an Italian surgeon, William of Bologna, attributed lesbianism to a "growth emanating from the mouth of the womb and appearing outside the vagina as a pseudopenis." [33]

Arab world Edit

In the medieval Arab world, lesbianism [note 3] was considered to be caused by heat generated in a woman's labia, which could be alleviated by friction against another woman's genitalia. [34] Medieval Arabic medical texts considered lesbianism to be inborn. For instance, Masawaiyh reported: [34]

Lesbianism results when a nursing woman eats celery, rocket, melilot leaves and the flowers of a bitter orange tree. When she eats these plants and suckles her child, they will affect the labia of her suckling and generate an itch which the suckling will carry through her future life.

Lesbianism is due to a vapor which, condensed, generates in the labia heat and an itch which only dissolve and become cold through friction and orgasm. When friction and orgasm take place, the heat turns into coldness because the liquid that a woman ejaculates in lesbian intercourse is cold whereas the same liquid that results from sexual union with men is hot. Heat, however, cannot be extinguished by heat rather, it will increase since it needs to be treated by its opposite. As coldness is repelled by heat, so heat is also repelled by coldness.

The earliest story about lesbianism in Arabic literature comes from the Encyclopedia of Pleasure, and tells the story of the love between a Christian, Hind bint al-Nu'man, and an Arab woman, Hind bint al-Khuss, and we know from the Fihrist, a tenth-century catalogue of works in Arabic, of writings about twelve other lesbian couples which have not survived. [36] In addition, Ahmad al-Tifashi wrote a collection of stories, known as A Promenade of the Hearts, which included some poems on homosexual and lesbian themes. [37] [38] Other accounts which mentioned lesbian relationships, include Allen Edwardes in his The Jewel in the Lotus: A Historical Survey of the Sexual Culture of the East, and Leo Africanus who reported about female diviners in Fez. [37] Moreover, the mutazarrifat (refined courtly ladies, also used for lesbians) were present in the Islamic world such as Wallada bint al-Mustakfi in Al-Andalus, [39] and slave girls (qaynas) who lived in the Abbasid Caliphate. [40]

Judaism Edit

Between 1170 and 1180 Maimonides, one of the foremost rabbis in Jewish history, compiled his magnum opus, the Mishneh Torah. It is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance, and as regarding lesbianism states: [41]

For women to be mesollelot [women rubbing genitals against each other] with one another is forbidden, as this is the practice of Egypt, which we were warned against: "Like the practice of the land of Egypt . you shall not do" (Leviticus 18:3). The Sages said [in the midrash of Sifra Aharei Mot 8:8–9], "What did they do? A man married a man, and a woman married a woman, and a woman married two men." Even though this practice is forbidden, one is not lashed [as for a Torah prohibition] on account of it, since there is no specific prohibition against it, and there is no real intercourse. Therefore, [one who does this] is not forbidden to the priesthood because of harlotry, and a woman is not prohibited to her husband by this, since it is not harlotry. But it is appropriate to administer to them lashings of rebellion [i.e., those given for violation of rabbinic prohibitions], since they did something forbidden. And a man should be strict with his wife in this matter, and should prevent women known to do this from coming to her or from her going to them.

In early modern England, female homosexual behaviour became increasingly culturally visible. Some historians, such as Traub, have argued that this led to increasing cultural sanctions against lesbian behaviours. [42] For instance, in 1709 Delariviere Manley published The New Atlantis, attacking lesbian activities. [43] However, others, such as Friedli and Faderman have played down the cultural opposition to female homosexuality, pointing out that it was better tolerated than male homosexual activities. [44] Additionally, despite the social stigma, English courts did not prosecute homosexual activities between women, and lesbianism was largely ignored by the law in England. [44] For instance, Mary Hamilton (the "Female Husband", as Henry Fielding's account of the case had it), while she was whipped for fraud, does not seem to have been considered to have committed any sex crimes by either the courts or the press at the time. [45] On the other hand, Terry Castle contends that English law in the eighteenth century ignored female homosexual activity not out of indifference, but out of male fears about acknowledging and reifying lesbianism. [42]

The literature of the time attempted to rationalise some women's lesbian activities, commonly searching for visible indications of sapphic tendencies. [46] In The New Atlantis, for instance, the "real" lesbians are depicted as being masculine. [46] However, Craft-Fairchild argues that Manley – along with Cleland in Fanny Hill – failed to establish a coherent narrative of lesbians as anatomically distinct from other women, [47] while Fielding in The Female Husband instead focuses on the corruption of Hamilton's mind as leading to her homosexual acts and cross-dressing. [48] This difficulty in establishing a narrative framework to fit female homosexuality into was acknowledged by Jonathan Swift in his writing for the Tatler in 1711, where he describes a woman having her virginity tested by a lion. Despite the onlookers' failure to see anything unusual about the woman, the lion identified her as "no true Virgin". [49] [50] At the same time, writings which were positive, or potentially positive, about female homosexuality, drew on the languages both of female same-sex friendship, and of heterosexual romance, as there were at the time no widespread cultural motifs of homosexuality. [51] Only among the less respectable members of society does it seem that there was anything like a lesbian subculture. For instance, there was probably a lesbian subculture amongst dancers and prostitutes in eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Paris, and in eighteenth-century Amsterdam. [52]

Laws against lesbianism were suggested but usually not created or enforced in early American history. In 1636, John Cotton proposed a law for Massachusetts Bay making sex between two women (or two men) a capital offense, but the law was not enacted. [53] It would have read, "Unnatural filthiness, to be punished with death, whether sodomy, which is carnal fellowship of man with man, or woman with woman, or buggery, which is carnal fellowship of man or woman with beasts or fowls." [54] In 1655, the Connecticut Colony passed a law against sodomy between women (as well as between men), but nothing came of this either. [55] In 1779, Thomas Jefferson proposed a law stating that, "Whosoever shall be guilty of rape, polygamy, or sodomy with man or woman shall be punished, if a man, by castration, if a woman, by cutting thro' the cartilage of her nose a hole of one half inch diameter at the least", [56] [57] [58] but this did not become law either. However, in 1649 in Plymouth Colony, Sarah White Norman and Mary Vincent Hammon were prosecuted for "lewd behavior with each other upon a bed" their trial documents are the only known record of sex between female English colonists in North America in the 17th century. [59] Hammon was only admonished, perhaps because she was younger than sixteen, [59] but in 1650 Norman was convicted and required to acknowledge publicly her "unchaste behavior" with Hammon, as well as warned against future offenses. [60] This is the only prosecution for female homosexual activities in United States history. [61]

Close intimate relationships were common among women in the mid-19th century. This was attributed to strict gender roles that led women to expand their social circle to other women for emotional support. These relationships were expected to form close between women with similar socioeconomic status. [62] Since there was not defined language in regards to lesbianism at the time, these relationships were seen to be homosocial. Though women developed very close emotional relationships with one another, marriage to men was still the norm. Yet there is evidence of possible sexual relationships to develop beyond an emotional level. Documents from two African-American women use terms describing practices known as "bosom sex." While these women practiced heterosexuality with their husbands, it is still believed their relationship was romantic and sexual. [63]

Late 19th century and early 20th century saw the flourish of "Boston marriages" in New England. The term describes romantic friendship between two women, living together and without any financial support by men. Many lasting romantic friendships began at women's colleges. This kind of relationship actually predates New England's custom, there being examples of this in the United Kingdom and continental Europe since the 18th century. [64] The belief in the platonic friendliness of these “Boston marriages” started to dissipate after followers of Freudianism corroded the innocence and the friendships that revolved around confidence in oneself that came along with these “Boston marriages.” [65]

The late 19th and early 20th centuries also saw an increase in lesbian visibility in France, both in the public sphere and in representations of lesbians in art and literature. Fin de siecle society in Paris included bars, restaurants and cafes frequented and owned by lesbians, such as Le Hanneton and le Rat Mort, Private salons, like the one hosted by the American expatriate Nathalie Barney, drew lesbian and bisexual artists and writers of the era, including Romaine Brooks, Renee Vivien, Colette, Djuna Barnes, Gertrude Stein, and Radclyffe Hall. One of Barney's lovers, the courtesan Liane de Pougy, published a best-selling novel based on their romance called l'Idylle Saphique (1901). Many of the more visible lesbians and bisexual women were entertainers and actresses. Some, like the writer Colette and her lover Mathilde de Morny, performed lesbian theatrical scenes in cabarets that drew outrage and censorship. Descriptions of lesbian salons, cafes and restaurants were included in tourist guides and journalism of the era, as well as mention of houses of prostitution that were uniquely for lesbians. Toulouse Lautrec created paintings of many of the lesbians he met, some of whom frequented or worked at the famed Moulin Rouge. [66] [67]

The Stonewall Riots were a series of spontaneous demonstrations, when members of the gay (i.e. LGBT) community fought back when police became violent during a police raid in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The crowd was spurred to action when butch lesbian Stormé DeLarverie punched the police officer who had struck her over the head, and called out to the crowd, "Why don't you guys do something?" [68] [69] These riots are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement in the US, and one of the most important events in the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. [70] [71]

Political lesbianism originated in the late 1960s among second wave radical feminists as a way to fight sexism and compulsory heterosexuality (see Adrienne Rich's essay Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence). Sheila Jeffreys, a lesbian, helped to develop the concept when she co-wrote "Love Your Enemy? The Debate Between Heterosexual Feminism and Political Lesbianism" [72] with the Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group. They argued that women should abandon support of heterosexuality and stop sleeping with men, encouraging women to rid men "from your beds and your heads." [73] While the main idea of political lesbianism is to be separate from men, this does not necessarily mean that political lesbians have to sleep with women some choose to be celibate or identify as asexual. The Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group definition of a political lesbian is "a woman identified woman who does not fuck men". They proclaimed men the enemy and women who were in relationships with them collaborators and complicit in their own oppression. Heterosexual behavior was seen as the basic unit of the patriarchy's political structure, with lesbians who reject heterosexual behavior therefore disrupting the established political system. [74] Lesbian women who have identified themselves as "political lesbians" include Ti-Grace Atkinson, Julie Bindel, Charlotte Bunch, Yvonne Rainer, and Sheila Jeffreys.

On December 15, 1973, the American Psychiatric Association voted almost unanimously to remove “homosexuality” from the list of psychiatric disorders that is included in the group’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This reversal came after three years of protests from gay and lesbian liberation activists and major disruption at the group’s panel on homosexuality in 1970. [75]

In 1974, Maureen Colquhoun came out as the first lesbian MP for the Labour Party in the UK. When elected she was in a heterosexual marriage. [76]

Lesbian feminism, which was most influential from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe), encourages women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and often advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. [77] Some key thinkers and activists in lesbian feminism are Charlotte Bunch, Rita Mae Brown, Adrienne Rich, Audre Lorde, Marilyn Frye, Mary Daly, Sheila Jeffreys and Monique Wittig (although the latter is more commonly associated with the emergence of queer theory). Into the mid 1970s, lesbians around the world were publishing their personal coming out stories, as these came few and far between at the time. In addition to coming out stories, lesbians were publishing biographies of lesbian writers who were misplaced in history, looking for examples of who they were and how their community came to be. As with Gay Liberation, the lesbian feminist understanding of the lesbian potential in all women was at odds with the minority-rights framework of the Gay Rights movement. Many women of the Gay Liberation movement felt frustrated at the domination of the movement by men and formed separate organizations some who felt gender differences between men and women could not be resolved developed "lesbian separatism", influenced by writings such as Jill Johnston's 1973 book Lesbian Nation. Disagreements between different political philosophies were, at times, extremely heated, and became known as the lesbian sex wars, [78] clashing in particular over views on sadomasochism, prostitution and transgenderism. The “Sex Wars” was a time in feminist history that divided “anti-pornography” and “pro-sex” feminists. The common belief among pro-sex feminists was that there needed to be a new way for female desire to be advertised and demonstrated. General photography of women in this manner was debated among feminists everywhere. [79]

The Lesbian Avengers began in New York City in 1992 as "a direct action group focused on issues vital to lesbian survival and visibility." [80] [81] Dozens of other chapters quickly emerged worldwide, a few expanding their mission to include questions of gender, race, and class. Newsweek reporter Eloise Salholz, covering the 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation, believed the Lesbian Avengers were so popular because they were founded at a moment when lesbians were increasingly tired of working on issues, like AIDS and abortion, while their own problems went unsolved. [82] Most importantly, lesbians were frustrated with invisibility in society at large, and invisibility and misogyny in the LGBT community. [82]

Many activists in the 21st century have attempted to create more visibility for lesbian history and the activists that brought it to light. They argue that LGBTQ history is not nearly as represented as other civil rights movements, including African American's or women's civil and equal rights. Activists and other volunteers around the country have attempted to collect historical artifacts, documents, and other stories to help preserve this history for generations in the future to celebrate and cherish. [83] Also in the 21st century, there has been an increased movement for LGBTQ+ visibility in school curriculums. The exclusion of the LGBTQ+ community and its history is one of the biggest contributors to homophobia and the exclusion of those a part of the LGBTQ community in schools. [84]


History of Bunch - History


The Bunch family can trace their ancestors back
to the ancient territories of Scotland between the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Bunch family traces their ancestral roots back to Pictish origin, and first appeared in ancient medieval records in Perthshire.

That from very early on the Bunch family not only held lands
and estates in Scotland but were also actively allied
with other influential families. They also branched out into other
territories and holdings, before taking the long voyage to the new world.

The Bunch Family Coat of Arms can
The Shield:
Silver with a red centre stripebetween three red diamonds and on the stripe three gold fleur de lis.
The Crest:
A stork.

The name Bunch originated in Yorkshire England.
The path of settlement was in the Jamestown Virginia area, very early
1600's, then westward along the peninsula into Southern Virginia,
South into the Carolinas and West through the Cumberland Gap (late 1790s) into Kentucky and Tennessee. From there, they spread westward, many by riding freight trains as hobos.
+Russ Collum 1926
-


History of Bunch - History


The Bunch family can trace their ancestors back
to the ancient territories of Scotland between the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Bunch family traces their ancestral roots back to Pictish origin, and first appeared in ancient medieval records in Perthshire.

That from very early on the Bunch family not only held lands
and estates in Scotland but were also actively allied
with other influential families. They also branched out into other
territories and holdings, before taking the long voyage to the new world.

The Bunch Family Coat of Arms can
The Shield:
Silver with a red centre stripebetween three red diamonds and on the stripe three gold fleur de lis.
The Crest:
A stork.

The name Bunch originated in Yorkshire England.
The path of settlement was in the Jamestown Virginia area, very early
1600's, then westward along the peninsula into Southern Virginia,
South into the Carolinas and West through the Cumberland Gap (late 1790s) into Kentucky and Tennessee. From there, they spread westward, many by riding freight trains as hobos.
+Russ Collum 1926
-


History of Willow Bunch

Read about the diverse history of Willow Bunch, or stories about our historic figures. Listen to audio tapes of different residents of Willow Bunch. Or just view pictures of our history. This section is under construction.

  • Convent / Museum History
  • The Development of Willow Bunch
  • Edouard Beaupré – The Willow Bunch Giant
  • Listen to French Audio Tapes
  • Historical Buildings of Willow Bunch
  • Link to Pictures of Willow Bunch
  • Jean Louis Légaré’s Story
  • Métis of Willow Bunch History
  • Establishment of Willow Bunch Museum – 1972
  • Sitting Bull and Willow Bunch

Willow Bunch Museum & Heritage Society

#8 Edouard Beaupré Street
Willow Bunch, SK S0H4K0
306-473-2806
[email protected]

Exhibits

Open Season

May 15th - September 15th
9:00 am - 5:00 pm - 7 days / week
Open every day including weekends & Statutory Holidays

To book French Tours we require 24 hours notice

Our museum is equipped with an elevator
and is wheelchair accessible.


Kid Curry, the Wildest of the Bunch

The 1970s television wester, “Alias Smith and Jones” portrayed Kid Curry as a carefree reformed outlaw, who only turned violent when he needed to protect himself. That was also how some contemporaries viewed the real Kid Curry. Ranch bosses Granville Stuart, Robert Coburn, and Samuel Hansen certainly respected him as a good cowhand. Women who knew him described Curry as a caring and generous man. History records yet another story. Once on the run from the law, Kid Curry was an outlaw for the rest of his life.

Kid Curry was born Harvey Alexander Logan in Iowa in 1867. When their mother died in 1876, Harvey and his three brothers Hank, Johnie, and Lonny went to live with their Aunt Lee in Dodson, Missouri. Until at least 1883, Harvey was making an honest living breaking horses for the Cross L outfit near Big Spring, Texas. Then he rode with a trail herd bound for Pueblo, Colorado. Soon after arriving in Pueblo, Harvey got into a minor saloon brawl. It was his first incident of trouble.

After a quick departure from Pueblo, Logan arrived at Hole-in-the-Wall, Wyoming, a place then already known as an outlaw hideout. While there, Harvey met Flat Nose George Curry. It was from George that Harvey adopted his new last name. They had called him Kid in Texas, so when he took George’s name he became Kid Curry. Lonny and Johnnie Logan, following the lead of their older brother, also adopted the last name of Curry. During the 1884 Spring roundup at Crooked Creek, John Lee hired the Kid for the Judith Basin Fall roundup. The Kid also worked for the Circle C and Circle Diamond outfit for Robert Coburn at Flat Willow Creek and for Granville Stuart. Through associated with a few unsavory characters, at this point, Kid Curry was still “legit.”

Now came the event that would change Kid Curry’s life forever. He, his brother Hank, and friend Jim Thornhill bought a ranch at Rock Creek in Chouteau County, Montana. Powell “Pike” Landusky was a local prospector who had made a rich strike near the Curry ranch and a town had built up around the site of the mine.

This event brought the turning point in Curry’s life. The generally accepted story is that Landusky got angry when he discovered that the Kid had been courting his daughter Elfie. He felt that the Kid was a ne’er-do-well and not near good enough for his daughter.

Pike Landusky filed assault charges against the Kid and he was arrested. Curry’s friends, A.S. Lohman and Frank Plunkett, paid the $500 bond for Curry’s release. The Kid got out of jail, but the charge was never dropped and he never stood trial. Elfie would later claim that it had been the Kid’s brother Lonny she had been seeing.

Kid Curry promised to give Pike a beating for the humiliation he had suffered. On the night of December 27, 1894, the Kid caught up with Landusky in a local saloon. An altercation followed, in which Harvey through the first punch. Once the Kid’s anger was aroused, there was no stopping him. He beat Landusky until the man could no longer stand. Landusky was in bad shape when he drew his gun. The Kid was unarmed, but his friend Thornhill quickly gave the Kid his gun. Landusky fired first, but he missed Curry or maybe his gun misfired. The Kid fired back, killing Landusky. At the inquest, eleven people verified that Kid Curry killed Pike Landusky in self-defense.

The Kid knew that he faced an unfriendly judge named Debois. Pike Landusky had many friends in the area and Kid Curry had started the fight. Curry felt that he didn’t stand much of a chance for a fair trial, so he hit the trail and became a fugitive from justice.

Kid Curry fled to the Hole-in-the-Wall, Wyoming to hide out. At first he joined the Black Jack Ketchum band. While riding with Black Jack, the Kid heard that a rancher named James Winters, who lived near the Landusky ranch, had been spying on him.

So in January 1896, the Kid and brothers Lonny and Johnnie rode to Winter’s ranch to shut him up. The adventure misfired and in the shootout, Winters killed Johnnie. Harvey and Lonny managed to escape. Afterwards, they participated in a train robbery with Black Jack’s gang. But immediately afterwards, the Kid argued with Black Jack and he and Lonny left the gang.

Making one more attempt to stay on the right side of the law, Kid Curry and his cousin Bob Lee hired on as horse breakers at Frank Lamb’s FL Bar ranch near Sand Gulch, Colorado. Lamb befriended the Kid, who he knew as Harvey Wright. Fate would not let Curry live peacefully. The cowboy job soon ended. Later, it was near the Lamb ranch that the Pinkertons lost the Kid’s trail following the Wilcox, Wyoming train robbery.

So in June 1897, the Kid and his gang decided to hold up the Butte County Bank at Belle Fourche, South Dakota. He and his friends got the money with little resistance, but the townspeople captured Tom O’Day. His horse had run away without him.

The others got away, but while planning another robbery a posse caught up with Curry in Fergus County, Montana. While packing his horse, the Kid was shot in the wrist. Then his horse was shot out from under him. Finally the posse captured the Kid, Flat Nose George Curry, and Walt Putney. The jail at Deadwood, South Dakota became home, until they broke out by overpowering the jailer.

After the escape, the men headed back to Montana, stealing horses and supplies along the way. Lawmen found them in the Bearpaw Mountains and there was a gunfight. The posse recovered the stolen goods and horses, but the gang got away on foot. They robbed two post offices on their way to the Hole-in-the-Wall.

Later that winter a posse went to the Hole and instigated a shootout with the outlaws when they caught up with the Curry gang. But the 30 or 40 outlaws who were at the hideout were well protected by the terrain and the structures they had built, so the posse finally gave up the right.

The robbers from the Belle Fourche Bank holdup were never punished. This lawless effort by the Kid Curry gang brought them instant recognition and a “bonafide” admittance into the Wild Bunch.

The Kid was riding with the Wild Bunch when, on June 2, 1899, they robbed the Union Pacific Overland Flyer train near Wilcox, Wyoming. Two robbers ordered the engineer and fireman to uncouple the express car and move it across a bridge a few yards ahead of the halted engine. Then the other robbers blew up the railroad bridge.

When the outlaws ordered the attendant, a man named Woodcock, to open the express car he refused, so the bandits were forced to blow the door open. Woodcock was knocked out by the force of the blast, so he was too dazed to remember the combination to the safe. So the outlaws blew the safe door open. The Kid was all for shooting the attendant for his obstinance, but Butch Cassidy held him back. From that point on, Cassidy was constantly having to hold back the Kid’s more violent nature. Butch himself was only interested in stealing money and not in hurting anybody they robbed.

The train robber’s descriptions, provided by the train crew, helped the local sheriff to identify some of the robbers as Harvey Logan, Flat Nose George Curry, and Elza Lay. Posses were formed immediately.

During the escape attempt, the Kid shot Sheriff Joe Hazen. This stopped the posse long enough for the Wild Bunch to wade down a stream to throw the posse off their trail. While the outlaws were completing this maneuver, the posse captured their horses. This left the gang in a vulnerable position and forced them to walk to a sheep ranch at Castle Creek to rest up. Next the gang walked to the Tisdale Mountains on the north fork of the Powder River, where they resupplied themselves and got some horses.

The race was on again. More lawmen joined the hunt. This time the bad guys won by reaching the Hole-in-the-Wall before the new posse could catch them. Once they were at the Hole-in-the-Wall, they were in “bad men’s” land and among friends.

Charles Siringo, a Pinkerton detective, was now assigned the task of bringing Kid Curry to justice. He made friends with Elfie Landusky Curry she called herself Curry after acknowledging that Lonny Curry had got her pregnant, to get close to the Kid. He used the names of Charles L. Carter and passed himself off as an outlaw so he could get in with the bad element. Siringo also became friends with Jim Thornhill, because he believed Jim had been keeping regular correspondence with the Kid. Siringo told his superiors that he was now on the right track.

While Siringo was snooping out Curry’s whereabouts, Curry was laying low at Robber’s Roost in Utah. After awhile he got restless and rode to Alma, New Mexico, with Butch Cassidy and some other outlaws. There the men worked as ranch hands on the WS ranch. The foreman and manager were very happy with the Wild Bunch’s work since the rustling stopped while they were employed at the ranch.

On July 11, 1899, while still working at the WS ranch, Kid Curry, Elza Lay, and Sam Ketchum robbed a train near Folsom, New Mexico. Lay and Ketchum were later captured, but the wounded Ketchum died, of blood poisoning, before he could stand trial. Lay was sentenced to life for the murder of the pursuing sheriff.

Kid Curry escaped the posse, but the Folsom incident required the Kid, Butch Cassidy, and the other outlaws to leave the Alma area. The law was getting too close. Their employers were reluctant to see them go, since the WS had enjoyed the most rustler-free era in the ranch’s history.

In January, 1900, following the Folsom train robbery, Lonny Curry went to his aunt’s house in Missouri. Soon afterwards some marked bills from the Wilcox train robbery were spent in town.

Lawmen came to Mrs. Lee’s cabin on February 28,1 900 to arrest Lonny, but he wasn’t going to be arrested without a fight. An officer killed Lonny in the resulting shootout. Once more fate was at work. Mrs. Lee’s son, Bob, had been arrested for rustling and was sentenced to the Wyoming State Prison. Kid Curry was now the last of the wild Logan brothers still alive. Hank Logan was not known to have ever been in any trouble with the law.

While hiding out, the Kid heard of the death of his brother Lonny and v owed to get revenge. He had also heard of the killing of Flat Nose George Curry by lawmen in Moab County, Utah, in April 1900. The Kid rode to Utah, from New Mexico, and killed Sheriff John Tyler and Deputy Sheriff Sam Jenkins in a shootout.

This time, Kid Curry didn’t even bother staying out of sight. The Wild Bunch was already planning their next big robbery. A Union Pacific train was robbed near Tipton, Wyoming on August 29, 1900. The robbery was done in the trademark Wild Bunch style. While the train was getting up steam, the Kid climbed into the engineer’s cab by crawling over the coal tender. He held two six-guns on the engineer and ordered him to stop. Fortuitously, Woodcock was the attendant on duty in the express car. He had learned his lesson from the Wilcox robbery and did not stand in the way of the robbers getting to the safe.

However, the bandits still had to blow the safe. The first newspaper stories said the holdup men got $55,000, but later reports said only $50.40 was in the express safe. The train crew identified Butch Cassidy, the Sundance Kid, and Kid Curry as part of the gang.

To elude the law, the Bunch split up. Kid Curry and Ben Kilpatrick hid out at Hell’s Half Acre in Fort Worth, Texas, while Butch Cassidy, Sundance Kid, and Bill Carver went out immediately and pulled another job at Winnemucca, Nevada. By then Butch and Sundance were planning to go to South America and still needed some extra money to get them there.

After the Winnemucca job, Kid Curry and Ben Kilpatrick joined other gang members at Fannie Porter’s Sporting House in Fort Worth. While there, the Kid started a long term relationship with a prostitute named Annie Rogers. In his usual daring fashion, Curry had his picture taken with Annie, although his positive identification in a photograph would only help law enforcement officials.

After the Tipton holdup, Siringo was back on the Kid’s trail and he was not surprised to learn that Kid Curry, the Sundance Kid, and Bill Cruzan were his prime suspects. Charley rode to Circleville, Utah, where Butch Cassidy was born, to see if he could get any fresh leads. From there he went to the Navajo Reservation to see if any of the Wild Bunch had been seen there. From the local trading post’s managers Charley learned that four Wild Bunch members had recently been seen in the area.

Siringo rode through many New Mexico towns hoping to pick up the Wild Bunch’s trail. He stopped at Alma, where bank notes from the Wilcox robbery had turned up. He posed as an outlaw while in the area to see if he could discover anything. It was here that he first heard about the Robber’s Roost hide-out. But by the time he arrived there, the Wild Bunch was already gone. He always seemed to be two steps behind them.

Siringo got a tip that “Jim F.”, in Grand Junction, Colorado, had ridden with Butch Cassidy so he befriended Jim, using the assumed name of Lee Roy Davis. Jim took Siringo to his Black Mountain ranch, where the Kid and his gang had stocked up on supplies and horses just before the Tipton, Wyoming train robbery. The Kid had also used this ranch as a hideout when the sheriff was looking for them. Jim confirmed that the three suspects had robbed the Tipton train.

While in Rawlins, Wyoming, Siringo learned that many Wild Bunch members spent a lot of time at Hole-in-the-Wall, Wyoming. He immediately set out to look for the area, but didn’t catch anyone home. Siringo trailed the Kid back to Rawlins, where he had stashed some money from the Tipton robbery. The Kid used the money to pay a lawyer to defend Annie Rogers, who had been passing some of the stolen bills in St. Louis. This was as far as Siringo got with his investigation when he was called back east for another assignment. He was reluctant to let the case drop, but he had accumulated much helpful information for future use.

It would still be another year, before lawmen could catch up with the Kid or any of the Wild Bunch. On July 3, 1901, near Wagner, Montana, members of the Wild Bunch hit the Great Northern train in their trademark style. This time, they got $65,000. T his was a huge haul and it was the last job the Wild Bunch committed together. Lawmen had become smarter. Rather than sending out posses and having someone get hurt or killed, the peace officers just waited for the bandits to start spending the stolen money.

As soon as the robbers started spending the money, the lawmen knew where they were and went after them. The first was Ben Kilpatrick. He was caught in Knoxville, Tennessee, on December 12, 1901, and at his trial he was given 15 years in prison.

Even though the Kid knew the law was close on his heels, he returned to Montana. It had taken five years, but now Curry avenged his brother Johnie’s death. He shot rancher Jim Winters.

The end of the trail was near in 1902. The Kid was captured in a pool room in Knoxville, Tennessee. During the arrest a billy club was broken over his head. The wound left a three-inch scar on Curry’s lower head and upper neck. When local officers filed their report they described the various marks on the Kid’s body. They noted that there were buckshot scars on his back, a knife scar, teeth missing from both upper and lower jaws, and scars on his leg, right wrist, and left forearm.

Kid Curry stood trial for the Wagner, Montana train robbery and was found guilty. On November 30, 1902, he was sentenced to twenty years of hard labor and a $5,000 fine. The Kid, however, was soon planning an escape.

On June 27, 1903, Curry escaped from the Knoxville jail. There were rumors that the deputy sheriff on duty had accepted an $8,000 bribe to let the Kid escape. Curry fled back west to Wagner, Montana. Here the Kid walked to his old hideout in the Thornhill Buttes and picked up some supplies. Curry had made a clean getaway. He could have started a new life, but he couldn’t resist pulling one more robbery.

The Kid made plans to rob the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad train near Parachute, Colorado. The same robbery had been considered earlier by Kid Curry, Butch Cassidy, and the Sundance Kid. But now Curry’s choice of partners was limited. The former Wild Bunch was disbanded. Butch and Sundance were in South America, and the other members were either killed or were already in prison.

Curry got George Kilpatrick and Charlie Howland from the Lamb ranch. Kid, George, and Charlie worked for the railroad as hands for a week while learning the terrain and the train schedules. The target date was June 17, 1904, but the train carrying the money didn’t stop as planned.

The bandit just stopped the next train. For their efforts, they only got $50. Unfortunately for them, that is enough to get the railroad detectives and the local lawmen on their tail. The Kid and his gang were able to elude the posse for two days, but finally the posse trapped the three train robbers.

At first the posse didn’t realize who they had cornered. They thought the Kid and his gang might be sheep rustlers. Over 200 shots were fired in the gun battle between the outlaws and the lawmen. The Kid was shot in the arm and both lungs. The Kid knew his time had come, so he held off the posse so that Ben and Charlie could get away. The end came on June 9, 1904, in a field near Rifle, Colorado. Harvey Logan, Kid Curry, simply shot himself with his Colt .45.

At first, the posse wasn’t sure whose body they had. Tap Duncan had been reported in Green River, Utah, so lawmen thought it might be him. The coroner examined the body at Glenwood Springs, Colorado. It was discovered that the coat on the body contained the same type of label was the coat that Kid Curry had worn when he was captured in Knoxville. When lawmen compared the scars on the Colorado body to those noted in the Knoxville arrest report, they found that they were the same. Pinkerton Detective Lowell Spence brought his own doctor to Colorado to examine the body. He was sure it was Kid Curry. The suspect’s body was exhumed from the Glenwood Springs cemetery on July 6, 1904. The examination was just long enough to prove to Spence that he had found the body of Kid Curry. Then it was reburied.

The railroad companies did not want to pay their $30,000 posted reward, so they still continued to label the body as Tap Duncan. The railroad never did pay the Parachute robbery posse their $100 reward for the capture either. T his lack of positive identification resulted in the rumor that Kid Curry had made it to South America. Newspaper reports fueled the rumors, which said that three American outlaws had been seen in South America. Some of these rumors concerned a reserved man who drank heavily. This seemed to describe the Kid.

The Pinkerton Detective Agency, however, was sure that Kid Curry, the most ruthless member of the Wild Bunch, was dead.

“Kid Currey, Montana Cowboy,” Kenneth Jesse Cole, The Montana Journal, Inner-Mountain Marketing, Missoula, MT, July-August 1990, p. 12.

“The Gunfighters,” James D. Horan, Gramercy Books, Avenel, NJ, 1976.

“The Outlaw Trail: A History of Butch Cassidy and His Wild Bunch,” Charles Kelly, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1996

“Wild and Woolly: An Encyclopedia of the Old West,” Denis McLoughlin, Barnes & Noble, 1975.

“A Cowboy Detective, A True Story of Twenty-Two Years with a World-Famous Detective Agency,” Charles Siringo, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1988 (originally published 1912).

WOLA Journal
Official Publication of the Western Outlaw-Lawman History Association, Inc.
Hamilton, Montana
Spring 1999


History

Elmer Bunch circa 1967

The history of Bunch Construction Inc’s (BCI) involvement in Vancouver area has a span of over 50 years in the making. BCI was established in Clark County, Washington by Elmer C. Bunch in 1967 as an underground contracting company. In the mid 70’s the company was transformed from an underground contractor to a structural construction company developing, constructing, moving and remodeling various types of homes and commercial buildings throughout the Clark County area has become the foundation of BCI’s core business model.

In 1992 Terry C. Bunch, Elmers son, took control of Bunch Construction Inc. Since then, BCI has developed several short plats, subdivisions, commercial sites and extended the foundation of Bunch Construction Inc. In 2008 Bunch Construction redeveloped three parcels of ground into an attractive new 14,000 sq. ft. complex known as Orchards Point and occupies the second floor for its office. Feel free to drop by anytime.

The BCI foundation broadened into the expansion of Bunch Property Management Inc (BPM) and Facilities Maintenance division of BCI where residential and commercial properties are managed and preserved. BCI network of Property Managers has enabled the growth of its Facility Maintenance Division. While BPM has extended into commercial properties in the Vancouver area.

BCI longstanding prominence in the Vancouver-Southern Washington area has enabled a formidable network of partners in land acquisition and site development as well as subcontractors. BCI network work to assist owners assess

land development in Vancouver and surrounding cities. Together with these partners, BCI has been successful in reviewing Owner’s expectations, determine County/State regulations and assist in value engineering to offer the most competitive means to owner’s expectancy.

Bunch Construction is a strong believer in giving back to the community. BCI has donated resources in the Orchards Park as well as the Fourth Plain revitalization project and was a key member on the community design team for the road improvements. BCI also co-organized the construction of the entry plaza in the heart of Orchards.

MEMBER OF THESE REPUTABLE ORGANIZATIONS:

Building Industry Association of WA National Federation of Independent Businesses Clark County Rental Association

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