Neanderthal Mother, Denisovan Father! Concrete Proof that Hybrid Hominin Families Did Exist

Neanderthal Mother, Denisovan Father! Concrete Proof that Hybrid Hominin Families Did Exist


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Together with their sister group the Neanderthals, Denisovans are the closest extinct relatives of currently living humans. "We knew from previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have occasionally had children together," says Viviane Slon, researcher at the MPI-EVA and one of three first authors of the study. "But I never thought we would be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups."

The ancient individual is only represented by a single small bone fragment. "The fragment is part of a long bone, and we can estimate that this individual was at least 13 years old," says Bence Viola of the University of Toronto. The bone fragment was found in 2012 at Denisova Cave (Russia) by Russian archaeologists. It was brought to Leipzig for genetic analyses after it was identified as a hominin bone based on its protein composition.

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  • A world map of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry in modern humans

This bone fragment ('Denisova 11') was found in 2012 at Denisova Cave in Russia by Russian archaeologists and represents the daughter of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. ( T. Higham/ University of Oxford )

"An interesting aspect of this genome is that it allows us to learn things about two populations -- the Neanderthals from the mother's side, and the Denisovans from the father's side," explains Fabrizio Mafessoni from the MPI-EVA who co-authored the study. The researchers determined that the mother was genetically closer to Neanderthals who lived in western Europe than to a Neanderthal individual that lived earlier in Denisova Cave. This shows that Neanderthals migrated between western and eastern Eurasia tens of thousands of years before their disappearance.

View of the entrance to the Denisova Cave archaeological site, Russia. ( Bence Viola/ Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology )

Analyses of the genome also revealed that the Denisovan father had at least one Neanderthal ancestor further back in his family tree. "So from this single genome, we are able to detect multiple instances of interactions between Neanderthals and Denisovans," says Benjamin Vernot from the MPI-EVA, the third co-author of the study.

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"It is striking that we find this Neanderthal/Denisovan child among the handful of ancient individuals whose genomes have been sequenced," adds Svante Pääbo, Director of the Department of Evolutionary Genetics at the MPI-EVA and lead author of the study. "Neanderthals and Denisovans may not have had many opportunities to meet. But when they did, they must have mated frequently -- much more so than we previously thought."

Male and female Homo neanderthalensis in the Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, Germany. (UNiesert/Frank Vincentz/Abuk SABUK/ CC BY SA 3.0 )


    Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000–65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.


    Introduction

    Today, humans are the only hominin species walking the planet. This exclusivity is a recent feature of our species’ history. Specifically, though anatomically modern humans first appear in the archaeological record 200� kya [1𠄴], other hominins persisted until as recently as 30� kya [5,6]. In some cases, modern humans overlapped temporally and spatially with archaic humans (for example, Neanderthals and Denisovans and perhaps others [7,8]). Neanderthals left a rich archaeological and paleontological record and resided in the Middle East, Europe, and parts of Asia [9�]. Denisovans, whom we only know about from ancient DNA taken from a single finger bone and three teeth [12�], are believed to have resided in parts of East and Southeast Asia.

    There has been long-standing interest in whether anatomically modern humans and archaic human ancestors hybridized. Historically, attempts at answering this question focused on archaeological remains and compared dental, cranial, and postcranial features from modern human and archaic human sites for evidence of hybrid morphologies [15]. By the early 2000s, technological innovations enabled the extraction and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from archaic human remains [16�] and eventually facilitated the capture and sequencing of the full nuclear genome [20�].

    The complete sequencing of archaic and modern human nuclear genomes led to the discovery that modern non-African human populations shared more genetic ancestry with archaic humans than did African populations [22]. Initial inferences demonstrated a strong likelihood of hybridization between archaic humans and the ancestors of all modern non-African populations, and these results proved robust to alternative explanations, such as archaic population structure. The continued development of ancient DNA technology facilitated extraction and sequencing of high-quality Neanderthal [23] and Denisovan [13] reference genomes. These foundational resources, coupled with advances in statistical and computational tools for analyzing ancient genomes, enabled the identification of sequences inherited from archaic ancestors (i.e., introgressed sequences) in the genomes of modern human individuals.

    Considerable progress has been made in the study of archaic–hominin admixture, which has been reviewed elsewhere [24�]. However, many outstanding questions remain, the resolution of which are critical to more completely understand the history and consequences of admixture between archaic and modern humans. In this review, we discuss several of these questions, including refining models of admixture history, determining the mechanisms responsible for the loss and retention of archaic sequence, and describing the functional implications of surviving Neanderthal sequence in the modern human genome.


    Archaic hominin introgression into modern human genomes

    To read the full-text of this research,
    you can request a copy directly from the author.

    120 ka in the Near East (Hovers 2006Kuhlwilm et al. 2016), most likely in western Asia at

    60-50 ka (Nielsen et al. 2017), and as late as 42-37 ka in present-day Romania (Fu et al. 2015Gokcumen 2019). .

    120 ka in the Near East (Hovers 2006Kuhlwilm et al. 2016), most likely in western Asia at

    60-50 ka (Nielsen et al. 2017), and as late as 42-37 ka in present-day Romania (Fu et al. 2015 Gokcumen 2019) . Currently, all non-sub-Saharan African human genomes carry

    2-4% Neanderthal ancestry, and some an additional 2-5% Denisovan. .

    5.8% in Mandenka) from an early divergent andcurrently extinct ghost modern human lineage. Conclusion: The present study represents an in-depth genomic analysis of a Pan African set of individuals, whichemphasizes their complex relationships and demographic history at population level.

    12–20% higher in East Asian individuals relative to European individuals. Here, we explore various demographic models that could explain this observation. These include distinguishing between a single admixture event and multiple Neanderthal contributions to either population, and the hypothesis that reduced Neanderthal ancestry in modern Europeans resulted from more recent admixture with a ghost population that lacked a Neanderthal ancestry component (the ‘dilution’ hypothesis). To summarize the asymmetric pattern of Neanderthal allele frequencies, we compiled the joint fragment frequency spectrum of European and East Asian Neanderthal fragments and compared it with both analytical theory and data simulated under various models of admixture. Using maximum-likelihood and machine learning, we found that a simple model of a single admixture did not fit the empirical data, and instead favour a model of multiple episodes of gene flow into both European and East Asian populations. These findings indicate a longer-term, more complex interaction between humans and Neanderthals than was previously appreciated.


    Emergent Homins

    Three independent DNA studies have corroborated evidence that an archaic Homin has interbreed with Sub Saharan Africans. The Sykes DNA study of Kwhit and Zana’s descendants 2012, The MUC 7E Oxford study of Homin introgression, 2017 and the Pan African study, 2019 that concluded not only was there a introgression with an archaic Homin but this Homin interbreed with Neanderthal also. This genetic evidence validates Emergent Homin Theory (EHT). The emergence of a Homin out of Sub-Saharan Africa that interbreed with Homo sapiens, Neanderthal and Denisovan to form the World ‘s Homin population known as the Russian Snowman, Sasquatch, Woodwose, Yeren, Yeti and Yowie. Overwhelming evidence of footprints, hand prints video and audio along with direct sightings over centuries are validated by these findings. Artificial Intelligence (AI) through deep genome sequencing algorithms and Environmental eDNA will develop global DNA profiles that will change scientific models. The accumulative value of the DNA studies establishes a base for the scientific study of Hominology. The existence of Zana and her descendants are the living record that this Homin exists today in the modern world.

    Recent DNA studies and the discovery of interbreeding by Neanderthal, Denisovan and Homo sapiens have shaped how science is looking at the early interactions of these emergent early Humans. Emergent Homin Theory envisions a third relative to the Homo spaiens genome out of Sub Saharan Africa. A MUC7 (gene unique to our mucous) study was completed in October of 2017 that identified an outlier in Sub Saharan African descendants. A presently unknown (ghost) introgression occurred, identified as MUC7E in Sub Sharan Africans. Haplo group E when compared did not group with Neanderthal or Denisovan and is its own sub group. This is significant, because we now have an unknown (Ghost) Homin out of Sub Saharan Africa and a third introgression that occurred with Homo sapiens unique to Sub Saharan Africa.

    Emergent Homin theory proposes Haplo group E as the origin (Y chromosome) of the modern Russian Snowman, Sasquatch, Yeren, Yeti, Yowie and Woodwose of Europe. The theory links the Haplo Group E Homin as the (Y) male progenitor of the major Homin groups globally. The (Y) homin emerged out of Africa and would later encounter other emergent homin groups through abduction, consensual or non-consensual intercourse interbreeding occurred. EX: The African Y Homin interbreeding with the Denisovan may represent a hypothetical “Yeren” in China.

    The modern DNA will consist of variations of this genome with the Homo sapient, Neanderthal and Denisovan admixture and the “unknown” male progenitor being the (Y) Sub Saharan African Homin. This is consistent with DNA of Sub Saharan African MUC7E group introgression. The interbreeding that had occurred historically of Homo sapiens with Neanderthal and Denisovan are the norm and not outliers. Emergent Homin Theory links migration of this Haplo Group E out of Africa as the precursor to the Homo sapiens migration. Just as we have migrated throughout the world the Haplo group E Homin migrated prior to us. This may have occurred as far back as the Pangea period.

    The story of Zana (Russian Snowman) is pivotal in the historical records of Emergent Homin Theory. The descendants of Zana are Sub Saharan African (Sykes Study). These modern descendants should have a comprehensive DNA study completed to assist in the identification of the (Y) Sub Saharan African Homin and then serve as the foundation for the study of Hominology in the scientific community.

    Ancient Homin ancestors 200 million years may have existed in the Pangea period inhabiting all the major continents today. Large Homin foot prints have been found along side that of Dinosaurs.

    John Green Book" The Apes Among us" (Hancock House Publishing) Pg 329

    DNA Study Graphs

    Oxford Study link of MUC7E with graphs (The Emergent Homin theory links the Haplo Group E Homin as the (Y) male progenitor of the major Homin groups globally).

    Above graph indicates Haplo Group E (Y Male progenitor) between great Apes and Denisovan Neanderthal grouping

    Haplo Group E (Above graph) Archaic Sub Saharan African Homin Introgression unique to only Sub Saharan Africans.

    Above graph Haplo Group E is an outlier and wildly different than that of Denisovan, Neanderthal and Homo sapiens groupings.

    Genome Biology Study April 26, 2019 below that I have linked to the MUC 7E haplo group archiac introgression in Sub Saharan Africans

    Graph of XAf ( slide B) introgression archiac ghost DNA to some Sub Sahran Africans. Confirmation in this new study the XAF and MUC 7E introgression are outliers and support a unknown Homin interbreeding Sub Saharan African Homo sapiens! Link to full study African DNA study Excerpt below for graph

    Archaic introgression from known hominins

    Archaic introgression from either known or unknown extinct hominins has been suggested in different African populations [26, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39]. In our data, we confirmed previous findings [28, 29, 30], as the results of the D-statistics of the form D(X = African population 1, Y = African population 2 Neanderthal/Denisova Chimpanzee) showed that Eurasian samples as well as North African individuals exhibit a significant enrichment of Neanderthal DNA (higher in East Asia than in West Eurasia or North Africa) when compared to sub-Saharan African samples (Additional file 1: Figure S8.1). Z-score values are generally lower for signatures of Denisovan introgression than for Neanderthal, meaning that a lower proportion of gene flow is observed when admixture has taken place. Asian samples were enriched in archaic DNA from Denisovans, and the European and North African samples too, but at lower levels. This is probably due to the fact that Neanderthal and Denisova are sister groups and consequently share derived alleles that might confound their admixture signals. We found no signals of Neanderthal or Denisovan introgression in the sub-Saharan individuals, which was additionally confirmed with an F4-ratio test for the Neanderthal introgression (Additional file 1: Table S8.1).

    We aimed to explore the impact of recent population admixture on the genetic landscape of sub-Saharan populations in an integrative manner, as well as the presence and nature of archaic introgression from hominin populations. To this end, we conducted an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analysis coupled to a Deep Learning (DL) framework [50] (Additional file 1: Figure S9.1).

    We implemented six demographic models (Fig. 4 Additional file 1: Table S9.1) of increasing complexity from a basic one (model A). Model A summarizes accepted features of human demography [65]: (i) presence of archaic populations out of the African continent, represented by the Neanderthal and Denisovans lineages, (ii) introgression from early anatomically modern humans into Neanderthal [44, 45], (iii) introgression from an extremely archaic population into Denisovans [36], (iv) Khoisans at the root of mankind [11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18], (v) Out-of-Africa event of AMHs [3], (vi) archaic introgression of a Neanderthal-like population after the Out-of-Africa event in Eurasian populations [30], and (vii) archaic introgression from a Denisovan-like population in East Asians [31]. Furthermore, we included recent migrations between Europeans to West Africans, Europeans to Mbutis, Europeans to Khoisans, West Africans to Mbutis, West Africans to Khoisans, Mbutis to West Africans, Mbuti to Khoisans, and Khoisans to Mbutis. These last parameters, as well as the introgression of the archaic population in Denisovans, can be considered as nuisance parameters. Model B extends model A by adding a “ghost” archaic population, XAf, directly related to the lineage leading to AMHs. In this model, XAf independently inbreeds with each of the AMH African populations. Model C extends A by considering that the ghost archaic population is directly related to the Neanderthal lineage, Xn. Model D considers that Xn appears in the archaic lineage out of Africa before the Neanderthal and Denisovan split. Model E is a mixture of model B and C. It considers two ghost archaic populations, one that directly split from the lineage that will produce the AMHs and another related to the Neanderthal lineage, both admixing with AMH populations within Africa. Finally, model F mixes the ghost features of models B and D.

    Image of Emergent Homins Black XAf and Light Colored Xn hybrid as related to the graph. Emergent Homin Theory (EHT)

    I theorize the XAf Homin to be entirely Black or Red and then the Hybridized with Neanderthal Xn displaying lighter color hair and skin. The Sub Saharan African Ghost progenitor (XAf) would have traveled out of Africa and Hybridized with Neanderthal (Xn). Zana also had equally equivalent Neanderthal genome as many Europeans have. This explains an introgression taking place historically and is genetic proof of Emergent Homin Theory (EHT). The Sub Saharan African genome XAf and Xn are the genetic markers that these Homins have existed in the past and Zana is the genetic link that proves they exist today as hybrids (EHT).

    Neanderthal sites where the XAf introgression may have occurred of the Sub Saharan African Ghost genome.

    Efforts are being made on DNA lab testing of purported Sasquatch hair to complete the genome of the Homin .Gathering more quality hair samples are needed. Dr. Igor Burtsev and Dmitri Bayanov continue to work on the scientific acceptance of Hominology. I believe Emergent Homin Theory will validate all these efforts currently in progress. I have attached Emergent Homin Theory (EHT) printable document at the bottom of this page.

    Dmitri, Dr. Marie Jeanne Koffman, Zhugdariyn Damdin, Dr. Igor Burtsev and his wife Lidiya Burtseva Circa 1965

    Dmitri Bayanov, Science Director,

    International Center of Hominology,

    Darwin Museum, Moscow, Russia

    The Making of Hominology" PDF by Dmitri Bayanov and Christopher Murphy. The Making of Hominology Purchase at Hancock House publishing

    " The Making of Hominolgy is a groundbreaking writing on the efforts made to bring Hominology into main stream science" Richard L. Soule

    Hominology definition link to the history and definition of Hominology. It was an honor for me to be asked to participate in this project! Thank you Dmitri!

    In addition to the definition Dmitri issued a paper to PALEOANTHROPOLOGISTS regarding Hominology Link to Hominology video!

    DNA, Hominology and AI (June 2019) Richard Soule

    DNA and the emergence of Homins such as Neanderthal and Denisovan align the contributions of Hominology with science and define delineation between Hominology and cryptozoology.

    Artificial intelligence such as deep genome sequencing are mining human DNA and identifying Homin in them through introgression. Paleontologists will study fossils to provide a greater understanding of history. Hominology provides a basis for research that parallel the DNA emergence of these Homin and Homo sapiens.

    DNA research has provided a direct link with Sub Saharan Africans and archaic introgression of unknown ghost Homin. AI can play a pivotal role in the paradigm shift and the recognition of Hominology. Pan African DNA has yielded significant clues to the future discoveries of AI and the importance of Hominology as a science. AI discoveries are a reminder that interbreeding of Homin occurred with Homo sapiens and the legacy continues on in our modern day. This raises the question has any of these archaic ancestors survived? If not for Hominology the exploration of this question may not exist.

    Past contributions of Carl Linnaeus and Boris Porshnev define Hominology and its role through history. The significance of this research is the bedrock for the study of the emergence of these Homins that will lead to a greater understanding of the whole human genome. We cannot assume that all Homin identified became extinct except for Homo sapiens. Hominology provides evidence that their presence exist today.

    The Sasquatch Genome Project provided DNA analysis for the ZOOBank to classify the Relict Hominoid "Homo sapiens cognatus" in Latin.

    Homo sapiens cognatus is the scientific name that was applied for and later published by ZooBank, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Homo sapiens cognatus was selected since cognatus means blood relative in Latin. The mitochondrial DNA that determines maternal lineage was 100% modern human, with a Paternal unknown Hominioid progenitor the Sasquatch people are literally our blood relatives.

    A blood sample was collected by Dennis Pfohl expedition leader of the Kentucky project. A piece of glass was placed on a paper plate with a pancake that was left for a habituated Bigfoot. Other blood samples from North America were used also in this study.

    link below to read the full study!

    DNA A link to DNA and how it is interpreted. Dr. Melba Ketchum study

    Gigantopithicus Not related to Homins 11/25/19

    Gigantopithicus New study linked 11/14/19 that supports Gigantopithicus was related to the Orangutan. The late Dr. Grover Krants among others had a theory that Bigfoot was a descendant of Giganto. Dr. Igor Burtsev (Russia) told me that there has been no Orangutan DNA in samples tested purported to be Bigfoot Homin's globally. Dmitri Bayanov also said that he had never supported the Giganto theory in any of his writings. It seems that Bigfoot is not related to Orangutans and there fore not a descendant of Gigantopithicus. This theory has now come to a close. THE NOX GIGAS STUDY MMXIX

    Image Courtesy of Sybilla Irwin

    Historical evidence that supports Emergent Hominoid interbreeding

    Historical interbreeding of Emergent hominoids link the Gigas to Homosapiens. I recently had my ancestry researched through my DNA ( 23 and me DNA analysis). Some interesting perspectives arose from my own DNA. I'm 99.6 % Northwestern Europe specifically British, Scotish,Irish with German and French. What stood out to me though was the Scandinavian Paternal haplo group I-M253. My male Y chromosomes passed down from my father from his and so on are Northern Europe 28,000 years ago. The Finns, Norwegians and Swedes are my Paternal Ancestors. I'm a Viking! The Vikings conquered the British Isles and I am the descendant of their Haplo group. "This explains my paternal lineage of my great grandfather George Soule from 1620 who came on the Mayflower to America". I'm a thirteenth Generation male descendant from 1620 from England. The exploring Viking Spirit exists today within me and my research!

    The Homo sapiens male paternal line Haplogroup A (23 and me) DNA

    My maternal mitochondrial DNA from my mother to her mother and beyond is H1a. H1 was common in Doggerland , an ancient land now flooded by the North Sea . Examples from this group are Spanish, Berbers and Lebanese of North Africa. Each Generation, mothers pass on mitochondrial (mt DNA) to their children and fathers pass on the Y chromosomes to their sons. Most of the genome exisists in two copies that exchange pieces between generations in a process called recombination. The mtDNA is shuffled and the Y chromosomes are transmitted unshuffled. Each sibling of the same parents may carry different combinations and thus have different DNA traits with recombination.The Y chromosomes pass on the Paternal DNA through the male descendants.

    The point I'm making here is that the homo sapient gene pool was wide and varied through migration and recombination creates variations of traits. I have Native American DNA from my Grandmother on my fathers side of the family that was 100% NA female 4 or 5 generations ago. Because mothers only pass on half their DNA to their children the half each sibling gets may differ and over generations some DNA becomes so small of a percentage it is literally non existent. These variations are important building blocks when looking at the historical markers of the Nox Gigas and the variations of their appearance in sightings.

    As Haplogroup A descendants passed down their Y chromosome in Homo sapiens, the predecessor of the worlds homins Y chromosome passed this signature along to the modern day Russian Snowman, Sasquatch, Yeren, Yowie, Yeti and Woodwose.

    If you have German and or French ancestry as I do then you most likely carry the Neanderthal genes that I do! "Named after the Neander Valley in Germany where they were first discovered." Neanderthals and modern humans share a common ancestor Homo Heidelbergensis an extinct hominid- that inhabited much of Africa, Europe and probably Asia at least 700,000 years ago and until 200,000 years ago. I am a living hybrid as most of you are too. Is it such a leap to accept that a unknown Emergent Hominoid progenitor has cross bred with the homo sapient DNA and continues to remain elusive today. That Gigas have variations in appearance from ape like to mongoloid and even human. Depending on the interbreeding this traits vary as they do within us.

    Ghost Gene Link to research conducted in Ethiopia. The discovery of Hominids living in Africa at the same time period and their interbreeding that had occurred. Another link that supports the Nox Gigas as being a Hybrid relative of Homo Sapiens. The genetics continue to support the hypothesis that Bigfoot is a cousin.

    INTERBREEDING OF HUMAN ANCESTORS : The team studied the MUC7 gene in more than 2,500 modern human genomes, revealing that a group from Sub-Saharan Africa had a ‘wildly different’ version than others. Further analysis revealed it was even more different to modern humans than Neanderthal and Denisovan MUC7 genes are.The discovery suggests that ancient human ancestors that can be traced to these populations alive today may have engaged in ‘sexual rendezvous’ with a ‘ghost’ species of archaic humans.

    Cladogenesis vs Anagenesis Homins

    Anamensis skull Link to a article on the Ethiopian Study of the Australopithecus skull morphology. I pasted the abstract below. Note the overlapping of species,.cladogenesis (a splitting into two distinct species). vs anagenesis (a single branch of a species) This study validates to me that the origin of the worlds Homin split from early hoimns (cladogenesis) and propagated the Global Homins known today as Bigfoot, Russian Snowman, Sasquatch, Woodwose,.Yeti and Yowie.

    The cranial morphology of the earliest known hominins in the genus Australopithecus remains unclear. The oldest species in this genus (Australopithecus anamensis, specimens of which have been dated to 4.2–3.9 million years ago) is known primarily from jaws and teeth, whereas younger species (dated to 3.5–2.0 million years ago) are typically represented by multiple skulls. Here we describe a nearly complete hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille (Ethiopia) that we date to 3.8 million years ago. We assign this cranium to A. anamensis on the basis of the taxonomically and phylogenetically informative morphology of the canine, maxilla and temporal bone. This specimen thus provides the first glimpse of the entire craniofacial morphology of the earliest known members of the genus Australopithecus. We further demonstrate that A. anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis differ more than previously recognized and that these two species overlapped for at least 100,000 years—contradicting the widely accepted hypothesis of anagenesis Nature Link to the full Nature publication

    German Lucy Teeth Belong to Species Known Only to Have Existed in Africa

    The teeth are believed to belong to a species that is most similar to the famous ‘Lucy’, who belongs to the Australopithecus Afarensis species, one of the first known relatives of humans. However, until now, this species is only known to have existed in Africa some 4 million years later!

    Archaeologists have made a discovery so sensational that they have waited 1 year to announce it as they had to be sure they had the dating correct. A set of teeth belonging to an early hominin species has been found in Germany that dates back 9.7 million years.

    Denisovan National Geographic It has become clear that as more evidence is unearthed of our past we have more cousins that we had previously believed. In the wake of these findings such as the Denisovan man, we know now that interbreeding between Hominoids had occurred across the stratification of the Hominoid species. I believe this is definitive that a Relict Hominoid surviving today will have DNA that has crisscrossed the Gene pool just as all other Hominoids have through history. This is the rule not an exception that will be the defining moment in scientific acceptance "Bigfoot is a hybrid!"

    Denisovan Skull link to new developments in the archaeological site of the Denisovan. More evidence supports "Emergent Homin Theory out of Africa".

    Convergence of Emergent Homins

    I suspect this took place even farther back in history as our origins connect. In order for this to occur the DNA must be close enough in similarity to produce breeding offspring. These emergent Homins arose regionally and began to interbreed through abduction or even trade of their female offspring.

    African X Hominoid Link to Sasquatch Canada Bits and Pieces issue no 128, story on Jacqueline Roumeguere-Eberhardt French anthropologist.

    Mrs.Roumeguere-Eberhardt wrote about stories of a Kenyan Hominoid she called ( X) prehistoric humans that were living in the Kenyan Bush. Circa 1978

    I find this story compelling and remarkable considering there are few actual documented accounts of these X Hominoids in Africa. Her position as the research director for the French Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) lends credibility to her findings. I believe this is corroborating evidence to my Emergent Hominoid Theory, a full forty years prior to the scientific DNA studies that link MUC7 E to S ub-Saharan Africa. The introgression that is responsible for the worlds Hominoids Sasquatch, Yeti, Yeren and Yowie.

    Richard Soule Hominologist HX September 28, 2020

    A hybrid Yeti of Tibet or Yeren of China may have Denisovan DNA adapted to low oxygen environments. (Emergent Homin Theory)

    I believe most of the footprints found high in these mountain ranges are Yeti that are passing over from mountain to valley into the timbered forests that they live and hunt. There is not much above the tree line that would keep them there for extended periods of time.

    The Yeren in China maybe a hybrid with Y male Sub Saharan African Ghost progenitor DNA and Denisovan (Emergent Homin Theory)

    I theorize that the ancestors of modern Nox Gigas benefited from the Neanderthal/Denisovan and Homo Sapiens emergence. The Nox Gigas gained Neanderthal/Denisovan and Homo Sapient DNA from interbreeding with unprotected females who became orphaned from their clans. The Zana story plays out in modern times as disease/plagues leave Zana without protection and she becomes vulnerable and captured by Homo Sapiens. A cruel twist that is woven through history. The genome of the Emergent Homin is criss crossed with a dominate Y chromosome male carrying on the genetic history.The modern Bigfoot came out of Africa "Rudy" will have variations of homin DNA. The interbreeding with Neanderthal, Denisovan and Homo sapiens to populate a global stratification of Europe, Asia and the Americas. See "Zana and the Black Plague" page MUC7 E gene.

    Emergent Interbreeding link to an article on the DNA evidence of historical interbreeding of Neanderthal and the Denisovan.

    Smithsonian Link to AI deep genome sequencing. I believe the D-Wave computer will identify the Sub Saharan origins of Homin.

    Humans, or Homo sapiens, are descended from a complex tree of upright walking ancestors, including species from the genera Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus. (Smithsonian's Human Origins Program)

    Emergent Homin Theory suggests that the modern hybrid Homin , Russian Snowman, Yeti, Yowie, Woodwose and Sasquatch all descend from a Sub Saharan African origin. The Y male progenitor may be one of the Homo group listed above. This previously believed extinct Homin or Ghost introgression maybe alive and well flourishing globally. DNA research using AI algorithms will eventually uncover this connection that I have stated in Emergent Homin Theory with the Sub Saharan Africa origins. Other species such as the Ceolacanth were considered extinct for 65 million years only to be found existent in modern times circa 1938.

    " We cannot assume all previous animals that are considered extinct are still, they may have remained into modern times undetected by Science."

    Richard L. Soule The Nox Gigas study EHT

    Nature Link to archaic introgression using AI deep algorithms! Evidence supporting the Emergent Homin Theory!

    Nature Link to a first generation Neanderthal and Denisovan offspring! Proof they engaged in interbreeding and lived along side each other in cave systems.

    eDNA Link to environmental DNA 9/16/19

    Environmental DNA has been in the news and I thought this link might give more insight to the obvious benefits of its application with Hominology. Environmental DNA could dramatically reduce the time needed to identify outlier Homin. This sort of research tool could be more cost effective and offer a greater application for Hominology. Migration of species and seasonal habits are a few of the noninvasive aspects of this type of research application.

    The ability to rapidly and sensitively detect the presence of a target species through eDNA analysis has enabled a wide range of scientific discoveries and technical advancements. For example, isolation of eDNA from ice cores revealed that Greenland was forested almost 2 million years more recently than previously estimated (Thomsen and Willerslev, 2015 Willerslev et al., 2007). Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) targets in surface water enabled researchers to distinguish the source of fecal contamination (Martellini et al., 2005). Environmental testing of cooling towers and other water systems enabled more sensitive detection of Legionella, a pathogen that can cause severe illness in the elderly (Collins et al., 2015).

    eDNA can be analyzed via the following steps:

    DNA extraction and purification, and

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection

    Samples are typically collected in the form of water, soil, sediment, or surface swabs. The DNA must then be extracted and purified to remove chemicals such as humic acid that are abundant in soil and sediment and strongly inhibit the PCR reaction. The final step, detection via qPCR, relies on selection of a suitable eDNA target. The ideal eDNA qPCR target is species specific and highly abundant. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a popular target as it checks both of these boxes: mtDNA has significant divergence across species and there are thousands of copies of mtDNA per cell. The target sequence is then detected via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In this process, billions of copies of a target sequence are synthesized from template DNA (the purified eDNA sample, which can be present at very low levels) and then detected in real-time via fluorescent signal amplification. At the end of the reaction, if significant amplification of fluorescent signal is detected, the environmental sample is considered positive for the species of interest.

    The lost Yeti Link to Dr. Mark Evans documentary

    With some forward thinking I believe eDNA will gather Homin DNA within these eDNA studies. As more studies are conducted an outlier of Homo sapiens with unknown DNA (99% Human 1 % unknown) may develop.. I linked a 2018 documentary by Dr. Mark Evans (U.K Veterinarian) where a French Geneticist conducted eDNA in Bhutan. eDNA was extracted from some snow tracks that were believed related to the Yeti . It was determined that it was actually a rare mountain goat for that region. Then a nearby mountain lake was tested and the results yielded an outlier of Homo sapiens 99% with 1 % unknown.

    I suspect over time a data base can be gathered by these environmental studies with this outlier Homo sapiens/unknown profile. The use of a florescent DNA marker could then be developed for this Homin. This maybe enough for mainstream science to take notice. The academic inclusion within a University study and laboratory protocols could lead to the acceptance of Hominology.

    This noninvasive tool could represent a a variety of field applications from winter snow track data, to lakes and stream monitoring for migration or seasonal habits.

    11/19/19 eDNA

    EDNA study Link to a eDNA study of the gold finch. Excellent resource for future applications with Homin. Environmental DNA analysis has become a valu- able tool for studying animal distributions (Ushio et al. 2017). It is particularly valuable for detecting ani- mals that are difficult to detect directly by other methods, due to being cryptic, rare, transitory, trap- shy or occurring in environments that are difficult or dangerous to sample.

    The reference to cryptic species is a fascinating application that is promising for future field research of hominoids that differ from Homo sapiens. A fluorescent marker that could be developed from eDNA (99% Homo sapiens 1% unknown) I suspect will be the gateway to field research acceptance by mainstream science. An algorithm for eDNA of these Hominoids could be used by a University to research the global stratification.

    Russian Museum has California Bigfoot?

    Excerpt from a post of Loren Coleman from a caller on Coast to Coast Radio.

    Posted by: Loren Coleman on September 22nd, 2006

    In the last hour of the overnight appearance of Jeff Meldrum’s and John Bindernagel’s discussion of Bigfoot, September 21-22, an American living in the Ukraine telephoned into the talk-radio program. The credible-sounding individual had an intriguing account.The man identified himself as an environmental scientist. After the fall of the Soviet Union, he was hired to do air-quality studies at the museum in the university in the changing Leningrad. While taking air samples in a three-level basement beneath the museum in 1992, he said he made a startling find. [St. Petersburg was founded in 1703 by Tzar Peter the Great, but went through a period of having other names, Petrograd (1914–1924) and Leningrad (1924–1991).]

    The American scientist related that he came across an object in a glass case that, according to the label, was an animal (an obvious Bigfoot) taken near a Russian outpost in northern California. The outpost was near Mendocino, and the mounted hominoid was collected in the late 1700s, from what he could tell on the museum label. The huge animal he saw, and said was examined, had several layers of skin, exhibited a foot 17 inches long, and was – amazingly – a 7 ft 1 in tall, hair-covered upright Bigfoot-like figure. According to the dates of the founding of the universities in Saint Petersburg, this scientist could only be talking about the Saint Petersburg State University, which was founded in 1724. All the other universities in Saint Petersburg are technology, electrical, polytechnical and specialty institutes founded between 1828 and 1906. This could even be about the The State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.

    A Russian discovery of an 18th or 19th century Californian Bigfoot body has never been mentioned before in any Russian, hominological or cryptozoological correspondence, book, or literature. Could it be true? Could the ultimate evidence of the existence of Bigfoot be undisturbed in the basement of a Russian museum? Strange things have bWhat evidence is there that the Russians were ever in California? Of course, the short history of Russians intruding into the Spanish lands of California is well-documented.

    A little bit of research shows that Russians seeking pelts of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) near the Pacific coast, first established sites in Alaska and then moved down along the coast of California, looking for areas that might serve their purposes. In the “History of the Russian Settlement at Fort Ross, California,” the Russians appear to have mostly occupied the spots around San Francisco Bay from 1804 through 1829. The Russian who first came in 1804 was Ivan Alexandrovich Kuskov, and in 1812, he established (along with 25 Russians and almost 100 Aleuts) a fortified settlement on the California coast north of Bodega Bay.

    Indeed, Fort Ross was a Russian fur trade outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California, United States, from the time of its establishment by the Russian-American Company in 1812, until it was sold to John Sutter (of Gold Rush fame) in 1841. (“Ross,” by the way, is a poetical shortened version of “Rossiya,” which is Russian for Russia.)There are other names left on the landscape that give a clue to the Russians being in California. A well-known scenic site often visited today by hikers and tourists is the Russian River in California. The name did not drop out of the sky. The river takes its name from Russian trappers who explored the river in the early 19th century, when Russia maintained trade colonies and outposts, such as Fort Ross, along the Northern California coasts.

    The Russian River rises in the coastal mountain ranges of Mendocino County, north of Ukiah in Northern California. Starting at Lake Mendecino, it flows south through valleys in Mendocino County and Sonoma County along Highway 101. The river turns west at Healdsburg and empties into the Pacific Ocean at Jenner-by-the-Sea, about 60 miles (100 km) north of the San Francisco Bay’s Golden Gate.Considering that the Coast to Coast AM caller mentioned Mendocino from the museum label, all of these details appear to fit together (unless, of course, it was a hoax caller from a Russian River bed and breakfast or something weird like that). The caller said he thought the label said the late 1700s. Could the Bigfoot have been collected by one of the first surveying Russian exploration parties, looking for locations from which to take the sea otters? This discovery, if uncovered, is too late for inclusion in Meldrum’s just published book, but if revealed in a Russian museum, won’t it be incredible that indirectly the publication of his new book might cause this piece of evidence to be brought forward?

    I contacted Dr. Meldrum and Dr. Burtsev regarding this article.I appreciated the feedback from both of these professionals

    Dr . Meldrum commented that he vaguely remembers it and there was no corroborating evidence to follow up with so it went no where.

    Dr Burtsev sent me the following response.

    Rich, I had read that story about the museum exhibit with the label, some five years ago, maybe even earlier, and tried to investigate it. I attracted Dr Valentine Sapunov, our researcher of Snowman, too, as he lives there. More of that, his father (that time alive, now late) worked in museums too, and Valentine tried to learn re this story from him.

    Alas - no any sign of such a sample there was found. I couldn't find the name of that engineer from Ukraine - he was responsible for air conditions in museums - to learn from him, which museum he meant. Nothing.

    As to the history of "Russian America" - I had very close connections with one historian, Vladimir Erokhin (now late), and I as a publisher issued several his books re the historical connections between Russia and USA, I'm aware of names such as Rotchev, Kuskov, even Sutter, and so on.

    By the way, the mount St-Helen was named in the honor of a Russian woman - the wife of the Russian governor there. She climbed once that Mnt, after that event the Mnt got such a name. For Mnt Shasta, too,used the Russian word Shastye, meant "happiness". Some settlements were named with Russian names, too. And so on.

    Unfortunately, I couldn't work out that mystery about stuffed Bigfoot in the museum. Maybe it yet waits for us somewhere in basement.

    I find this information historically accurate and Physiologically telling. The description of Several layers of skin is significant to me. If you look at the picture above (Patterson/Gimlin M.K. Davis enhanced) you can clearly see a thick skinned hooded nose primate with Pendulous nippled breasts. The Russian description is "Hair covered and seven foot tall with 17 inch long foot " tells me this was probably a curious Juvenile that had got caught out in the open and killed. The authenticity to this story is uncorroborated and not a valid source for research. I will keep this post available for readers as museums world wide may hold answers to this question.

    My First Expedition – w. M.-J. Koffmann, 1965 Dr. Igor Burtsev 7/22/19

    After the unsuccessful 1958 Pamir Expedition, the North Caucasus became the main region of searches for the “snowman.” Marie-Jeanne Kofmann’s expedition worked there for decades. Her headquarter was based in the settlement of Sarmakovo on the Malka river in Kabardino-Balkaria, an Autonomous Republic in the Russian Federation. The creature in question is called – (there only!) almasty, sometimes kaptar. Later on Jeanne had written a big article about the almasty’s ecology, ethology, habituations etc., having analyzed a lot of eyewitness reports, gathered in that location.

    I joined Koffmann’s expedition in the summer of 1965 together with my first wife Alexandra Burtseva (late). At that time I had just changed my job: after having graduated from the Moscow Aviation University, I worked as an engineer in one of designer’s office in space technology (as Alexandra did too), but after coming that my vacation I had to start my job as an officer in a district division of the Youth Leage (Komsomol).

    Thus during our vacations we travelled to the Caucasus region. Local people knew about almastys’ existence, and even the owner of the house, where Jeanne resided, had encounters with such creatures in the past. The information collected there within one month testified to the reality of almastys’ existence.

    One report impressed me especially.

    The local woman’s encounter, 1965. Drawing by Lidiya Burtseva

    Once some people came to our head-quarter, and being extremely agitated, narrated to us, that one woman from the Konezavod (Horse Farm) settlement had met almasty just a couple of days before, and now she was ill because of shock. With another participants, we jumped into Jeanne’s micro-car and rushed to that settlement. We had found the woman-eyewitness, and she narrated the following.

    She was in a ravine, cutting branches and brushes with an axe for firewood. Suddenly while cutting the next brush, her glance caught behind the limbs somebody’s hand with stirring fingers. She raised her head and saw behind the brushes somebody’s muscled hairy hands, then a powerful breast also covered with thick black hair, a low seated head with red eyes. And as she told us, “when my eyes met with his red eyes stearing directly at me, I got down powerless to my knees”. After several seconds, her mind came back to her and she thought: “I have an axe, I can defend myself” – and her power came back to her. She stood up slowly and stepped back, then, not turning her back to the creature, retreated down the slope of the ravine. After having left the horrible site, she ran to her home, and afterwards felt herself ill.

    The information gathered by us at that month was so impressive and convincing, that the search for hominoids has become ever since the main goal of my life. In 50 years that have passed since then, I changed several professions and finally became editor and director of Cryptologos – a small private publishing firm in Moscow (set up in 1992). But all along this time, and whatever positions I got, I have always remained a hominologist. At every opportunity I engaged in the search and investigation of homins. So it is possible to say that my basic and constant speciality has been hominology.

    4-2 M-J with Dmitri Bayanov in burcas

    4-3 Jeanne’s group of voluntaries (on right) with house owners’ family (on left) in the yard of the head-quarter

    4-4 Repairing the small car with an assistant – a member of expedition

    4-5 the local woman’s encounter, 1965. Drawing by Lidiya Burtseva

    4-6 One of the footprints found and casted by Jeanne Kofmann group in 1978,

    4-7 So big was a stride of a creature left the foot prints

    4-8 M-J.K. in 2009 in a forest before leaving for France. Credit by Dmitry Pirkulov

    Emergent Homin Theory discussed on location in a riparian forest Lincoln, Nebraska 2019

    Albert Ostman with John Green

    I have always followed logging and construction work. This time I had worked over one year on a construction job, and thought a good vacation was in order. B. C. is famous for lost gold mines.

    One is supposed to be at the head of Toba Inlet — why not look for this mine and have a vacation at the same time? I took the Union Steamship boat to Lund, B.C. From there I hired an old Indian to take me to the head of Toba Inlet.

    This old Indian was a very talkative old gentleman. He told me stories about gold brought out by a white man from this lost mine. This white man was a very heavy drinker — spent his money freely in saloons. But he had no trouble in getting more money. He would be away a few days, then come back with a bag of gold. But one time he went to his mine and never came back. Some people said a Sasquatch had killed him.

    At that time I had never heard of Sasquatch. So I asked what kind of an animal he called a Sasquatch. The Indian said, "They have hair all over their bodies, but they are not animals. They are people. Big people living in the mountains. My uncle saw the tracks of one that were two feet long. One old Indian saw one over eight feet tall."

    I told the Indian I didn't believe in their old fables about mountain giants. It might have been some thousands of years ago, but not nowadays.

    The Indian said: "There may not be many, but they still exist."

    We arrived at the head of the inlet about 4:00 p.m. I made camp at the mouth of a creek . The Indian had supper with me, and I told him to look out for me in about three weeks. I would be camping at the same spot when I came back.

    Next morning I took my rifle with me, but left my equipment at the camp. I decided to look around for some deer trail to lead me up into the mountains. On the way up the inlet I had seen a pass in the mountain that I wanted to go through, to see what was on the other side.

    I spent most of the forenoon looking for a trail but found none, except for a hogback running down to the beach. So I swamped out a trail from there, got back to my camp about 3:00 p.m. that afternoon, and made up my pack to be ready in the morning. My equipment consisted of one 30- 30 Winchester rifle, I had a special home-made prospecting pick, axe on one end, pick on the other. I had a leather case for this pick which fastened to my belt, also my sheath knife.

    The storekeeper at Lund was co-operative. He gave me some cans for my sugar, salt and matches to keep them dry. My grub consisted mostly of canned stuff, except for a side of bacon, a bag of beans, four pounds of prunes and six packets of macaroni, cheese, three pounds of pancake flour and six packets of Rye King hard tack, three rolls of snuff, one quart sealer of butter and two one-pound cans of milk. I had two boxes of shells for my rifle.

    The storekeeper gave me a biscuit tin. I put a few things in that and cached it under a windfall, so I would have it when I came back here waiting for a boat to bring me out. My sleeping bag I rolled up and tied on top of my pack sack, together with my ground sheet, small frying pan, and one aluminum pot that held about a gallon. As my canned food was used, I would get plenty of empty cans to cook with.

    The following morning I had an early breakfast, made up my pack, and started out up this hogback. My pack must have been at least eighty pounds, besides my rifle. After one hour, I had to rest. I kept resting and climbing all that morning. About 2:00 p.m. I came to a flat place below a rock bluff. There was a bunch of willow in one place. I made a wooden spade and started digging for water. About a foot down I got seepings of water, so I decided to camp here for the night, and scout around for the best way to get on from here.

    I must have been up to near a thousand feet. There was a most beautiful view over the islands and the Strait — tugboats with log booms, and fishing boats going in all directions. A lovely spot. I spent the following day prospecting round. But no sign of minerals. I found a deer trail leading towards this pass that I had seen on my way up the inlet. The following morning I started out early, while it was cool. It was steep climbing with my heavy pack. After a three hours climb, I was tired and stopped to rest. On the other side of a ravine from where I was resting was a yellow spot below some small trees. I moved over there and started digging for water.

    I found a small spring and made a small trough from cedar bark and got a small amount of water, had my lunch and rested here 'till evening . I made it over the pass late that night.

    Now I had downhill and good going, but I was hungry and tired, so I camped at the first bunch of trees I came to . I was trying to size up the terrain — what direction I would take from here. Towards west would lead to low land and some other inlet, so I decided to go in a northeast direction . had good going and slight down hill all day. I must have made 10 miles when I came to a small spring and a big black hemlock tree.

    This was a lovely campsite, I spent two days here just resting and prospecting. The first night here I shot a small deer.

    (Two days later) . I found an exceptionally good campsite. It was two good-sized cypress trees growing close together and near a rock wall with a nice spring just below these trees. I intended to make this my permanent camp. I cut lots of brush for my bed between these trees. I rigged up a pole from this rock wall to hang my packsack on, and I arranged some flat rocks for my fireplace for cooking. I had a really classy setup. And that is when things began to happen.

    I am a heavy sleeper, not much disturbs me after I go to sleep, especially on a good bed like I had now.

    Next morning I noticed things had been disturbed during the night. But nothing missing I could see. I roasted my grouse on a stick for breakfast.

    That night I filled up the magazine of my rifle. I still had one full box of 20 shells and six shells in my coat pocket. That night I laid my rifle under the edge of my sleeping bag. I thought a porcupine had visited me the night before and porkies like leather, so I put my shoes in the bottom of my sleeping bag.

    Next morning my pack sack had been emptied out. Some one had turned the sack upside down. It was still hanging on the pole from the shoulder straps as i had hung it up. Then I noticed one half-pound package of prunes was missing. Also my pancake flour was missing, but my salt bag was not touched. Porkies always look for salt, so I decided it must be something else than porkies. I looked for tracks but found none. I did not think it was a bear, they always tear up and make a mess of things. I kept close to camp these days in case this visitor would come back.

    I climbed up on a big rock where I had a good view of the camp, but nothing showed up. I was hoping it would be a porky, so I would get a good porky stew. These visits had now been going on for three nights.

    This night it was cloudy and looked like it might rain. I took special notice of how everything was arranged. I closed my pack sack, I did not undress, I only took off my shoes, put them in the bottom of my sleeping bag. I drove my prospecting pick into one of the cypress trees so I could reach it from my bed. I also put the rifle alongside me, inside my sleeping bag. I fully intended to stay awake all night to find out who my visitor was, but I must have fallen asleep.

    I was awakened by something picking me up. I was half asleep and at first I did not remember where I was. As I began to get my wits together, I remembered I was on this prospecting trip, and in my sleeping bag.

    My first thought was — it must be a snow slide, but there was no snow around my camp. Then it felt like I was tossed on horseback, but I could feel whoever it was, was walking.

    I tried to reason out what kind of animal this could be. I tried to get at my sheath knife, and cut my way out, but I was in an almost sitting position, and the knife was under me. I could not get hold of it, but the rifle was in front of me, I had a good hold of that, and had no intention to let go of it. At times I could feel my packsack touching me, and could feel the cans in the sack touching my back.

    After what seemed like an hour, I could feel we were going up a steep hill. I could feel myself rise for every step. What was carrying me was breathing hard and sometimes gave a slight cough. Now, I knew this must be one of the mountain Sasquatch giants the Indian told me about.

    I was in a very uncomfortable position — unable to move. I was sitting on my feet, and one of the boots in the bottom of the bag was crossways with the hobnail sole up across my foot. It hurt me terribly, but I could not move.

    It was very hot inside. It was lucky for me this fellow's hand was not big enough to close up the whole bag when he picked me up — there was a small opening at the top, otherwise I would have choked to death.

    Now he was going downhill. I could feel myself touching the ground at times and at one time he dragged me behind him and I could feel he was below me. Then he seemed to get on level ground and was going at a trot for a long time. By this time, I had cramps in my legs, the pain was terrible. I was wishing he would get to his destination soon. I could not stand this type of transportation much longer.

    Now he was going uphill again. It did not hurt me so bad. I tried to estimate distance and directions. As near as I could guess we were about three hours travelling. I had no idea when he started as I was asleep when he picked me up.

    Finally he stopped and let me down. Then he dropped my packsack, I could hear the cans rattle. Then I heard chatter — some kind of talk I did not understand. The ground was sloping so when he let go of my sleeping bag, I rolled downhill. I got my head out, and got some air. I tried to straighten my legs and crawl out, but my legs were numb.

    It was still dark, I could not see what my captors looked like. I tried to massage my legs to get some life in them, and get my shoes on. I could hear now it was at least four of them, they were standing around me, and continuously chattering. I had never heard of Sasquatch before the Indian told me about them. But I knew I was right among them.

    But how to get away from them, that was another question? I got to see the outline of them now, as it began to get lighter, though the sky was cloudy, and it looked like rain, in fact there was a slight sprinkle.

    I now had circulation in my legs, but my left foot was very sore on top where it had been resting on my hobnail boots. I got my boots out from the sleeping bag and tried to stand up. I found that I was wobbly on my feet, but I had a good hold of my rifle.

    I asked, "What you fellows want with me?" Only some more chatter.

    It was getting lighter now, and I could see them quite clearly. I could make out forms of four people. Two big and two little ones. They were all covered with hair and no clothes on at all.

    I could now make out mountains all around me. I looked at my watch. It was 4:25 a.m. It was getting lighter now and I could see the people clearly.

    They look like a family, old man, old lady and two young ones, a boy and a girl. The boy and the girl seem to be scared of me. The old lady did not seem too pleased about what the old man dragged home. But the old man was waving his arms and telling them all what he had in mind. They all left me then.

    I had my compass and my prospecting glass on strings around my neck. The compass in my lefthand shirt pocket and my glass in my right hand pocket. 1 tried to reason our location, and where I was. I could see now that I was in a small valley or basin about eight or ten acres, surrounded by high mountains, on the southeast side there was a V-shaped opening about eight feet wide at the bottom and about twenty feet high at the highest point — that must be the way I came in. But how will I get out? The old man was now sitting near this opening.

    I moved my belongings up close to the west wall. There were two small cypress trees there, and this will do for a shelter for the time being. Until I find out what these people want with me, and how to get away from here. I emptied out my packsack to see what I had left in the line of food. All my canned meat and vegetables were intact and I had one can of coffee. Also three small cans of milk — two packages of Rye King hard tack and my butter sealer half full of butter. But my prunes and macaroni were missing. Also my full box of shells for my rifle. I had my sheath knife but my prospecting pick was missing and my can of matches. I only had my safety box full and that held only about a dozen matches. That did not worry me — I can always start a fire with my prospecting glass when the sun is shining, if I got dry wood. I wanted hot coffee, but I had no wood, also nothing around here that looked like wood. I had a good look over the valley from where I was — but the boy and girl were always watching me from behind some juniper bush. I decided there must be some water around here. The ground was leaning towards the opening in the wall. There must be water at the upper end of this valley, there is green grass and moss along the bottom.

    All my utensils were left behind. I opened my coffee tin and emptied the coffee in a dishtowel and tied it with the metal strip from the can. I took my rifle and the can and went looking for water. Right at the head under a cliff there was a lovely spring that disappeared underground. I got a drink, and a full can of water. When I got back the young boy was looking over my belongings, but did not touch anything. On my way back I noticed where these people were sleeping. On the east side wall of this valley was a shelf in the mountain side, with overhanging rock, looking something like a big undercut in a big tree about 10 feet deep and 30 feet wide. The floor was covered with lots of dry moss, and they had some kind of blankets woven of narrow strips of cedar bark, packed with dry moss. They looked very practical and warm — with no need of washing.

    The first day not much happened. I had to eat my food cold. The young fellow was coming nearer me, and seemed curious about me. My one snuff box was empty, so I relied it toward him. When he saw it coming, he sprang up quick as a cat, and grabbed it. He went over to his sister and showed her. They found out how to open and close it — they spent a long time playing with it — then he trotted over to the old man and showed him. They had a long chatter.

    Next morning, I made up my mind to leave this place — if I had to shoot my way out. I could not stay much longer, I had only enough grub to last me till I got back to Toba Inlet. I did not know the direction but I would go down hill and I would come out near civilization some place. I rolled up my sleeping bag, put that inside my pack sack — packed the few cans I had — swung the sack on my back, injected the shell in the barrel of my rifle and started for the opening in the wall. The old man got up, held up his hands as though he would push me back.

    I pointed to the opening. I wanted to go out. But he stood there pushing towards me — and said something that sounded like "Soka, soka." I backed up to about sixty feet. I did not want to be too close, I thought, if I had to shoot my way out. A 30-30 might not have much effect on this fellow, it might make him mad. I only had six shells so I decided to wait. There must be a better way than killing him, in order to get out from here. I went back to my campsite to figure out some other way to get out.

    I could make friends with the young fellow or the girl, they might help me. If I only could talk to them. Then I thought of a fellow who saved himself from a mad bull by blinding him with snuff in his eyes. But how will I get near enough to this fellow to put snuff in his eyes? So I decided next time I give the young fellow my snuff box to leave a few grains of snuff in it. He might give the old man a taste of it.

    But the question is, in what direction will I go, if I should get out? I must have been near 25 miles northeast of Toba Inlet when I was kidnapped. This fellow must have travelled at least 25 miles in the three hours he carried me. If he went west we would be near salt water — same thing if he went south — therefore he must have gone northeast. If I then keep going south and over two mountains, I must hit salt water someplace between Lund and Vancouver.

    The following day I did not see the old lady till about 4:00 p.m. She came home with her arms full of grass and twigs and of all kinds of spruce and hemlock as well as some kind of nuts that grow in the ground. I have seen lots of them on Vancouver Island. The young fellow went up the mountain to the east every day, he could climb better than a mountain goat. He picked some kind of grass with long sweet roots. He gave me some one day — they tasted very sweet. I gave him another snuff box with about a teaspoon of snuff in it. He tasted it, then went to the old man — he licked it with his tongue. They had a long chat. I made a dipper from a milk can. I made many dippers — you can use them for pots too — you cut two slits near the top of any can — then cut a limb from any small tree — cut down back of the limb down the stem of the tree — then taper the part you cut from the stem. Then cut a hole in the tapered part, slide the tapered part in the slit you have made in the can, and you have a good handle on your can. I threw one over to the young fellow, that was playing near my camp, he picked it up and looked at it then he went to the old man and showed it to him. They had a long chatter. Then he came to me, pointed at the dipper then at his sister. I could see that he wanted one for her too. I had other peas and carrots, so I made one for his sister. He was standing only eight feet away from me. When I had made the dipper, I dipped it in water and drank from it, he was very pleased, almost smiled at me. Then I took a chew of snuff, smacked my lips, said that's good.

    The young fellow pointed to the old man, said something that sounded like "Ook." I got the idea that the old man liked snuff, and the young fellow wanted a box for the old man. I shook my head. I motioned with my hands for the old man to come to me. I do not think the young fellow understood what I meant. He went to his sister and gave her the dipper I made for her. They did not come near me again that day. I had now been here six days, but I was sure I was making progress. If only I could get the old man to come over to me, get him to eat a full box of snuff that would kill him for sure, and that way kill himself, I wouldn't be guilty of murder.

    The old lady was a meek old thing. The young fellow was by this time quite friendly. The girl would not hurt anybody. Her chest was flat like a boy's — no development like young ladies. I am sure if I could get the old man out of the way I could easily have brought this girl out with me to civilization. But what good would that have been? I would have to keep her in a cage for public display. I don't think we have any right to force our way of life on other people, and I don't think they would like it. (The noise and racket in a modern city they would not like any more than I do.)

    The young fellow might have been between 11-18 years old and about seven feet tall and might weight about 300 lbs. His chest would be 50-55 inches, his waist about 36-38 inches. He had wide jaws, narrow forehead, that slanted upward round at the back about four or five inches higher than the forehead. The hair on their heads was about six inches long. The hair on the rest of their body was short and thick in places. The women's hair on the forehead had an upward turn like some women have — they call it bangs, among women's hair-do's. Nowadays the old lady could have been anything between 40-70 years old. She was over seven feet tall. She would be about 500-600 pounds.

    She had very wide hips, and a goose-like walk. She was not built for beauty or speed. Some of those lovable brassieres and uplifts would have been a great improvement on her looks and her figure. The man's eyeteeth were longer than the rest of the teeth, but not long enough to be called tusks. The old man must have been near eight feet tall. Big barrel chest and big hump on his back — powerful shoulders, his biceps on upper arm were enormous and tapered down to his elbows. His forearms were longer than common people have, but well proportioned. His hands were wide, the palm was long and broad, and hollow like a scoop. His fingers were short in proportion to the rest of his hand. His fingernails were like chisels. The only place they had no hair was inside their hands and the soles of their feet and upper part of the nose and eyelids. I never did see their ears, they were covered with hair hanging over them.

    If the old man were to wear a collar it would have to be at least 30 inches. I have no idea what size shoes they would need. I was watching the young fellow's foot one day when he was sitting down. The soles of his feet seemed to be padded like a dog's foot, and the big toe was longer than the rest and very strong. In mountain climbing all he needed was footing for his big toe. They were very agile. To sit down they turned their knees out and came straight down. To rise they came straight up without help of hands or arms. I don't think this valley was their permanent home. I think they move from place to place, as food is available in different localities. They might eat meat, but I never saw them eat meat, or do any cooking.

    I think this was probably a stopover place and the plants with sweet roots on the mountain side might have been in season this time of the year. They seem to be most interested in them. The roots have a very sweet and satisfying taste. They always seem to do everything for a reason, wasted no time on anything they did not need. When they were not looking for food, the old man and the old lady were resting, but the boy and the girl were always climbing something or some other exercise. A favorite position was to take hold of his feet with his hands and balance on his rump, then bounce forward. The idea seems to be to see how far he could go without his feet or hands touching the ground. Sometimes he made 20 feet.

    But what do they want with me? They must understand I cannot stay here indefinitely. I will soon have to make a break for freedom. Not that I was mistreated in any way. One consolation was that the old man was coming closer each day, and was very interested in my snuff. Watching me when I take a pinch of snuff. He seems to think it useless to only put it inside my lips. One morning after I had my breakfast both the old man and the boy came and sat down only ten feet away from me. This morning I made coffee. I had saved up all dry branches I found and I had some dry moss and I used all the labels from cans to start a fire.

    I got my coffee pot boiling and it was strong coffee too, and the aroma from boiling coffee was what brought them over. I was sitting eating hard tack with plenty of butter on, and sipping coffee. And it sure tasted good. I was smacking my lips pretending it was better than it really was. I set the can down that was about half full. I intended to warm it up later. I pulled out a full box of snuff, took a big chew. Before I had time to close the box the old man reached for it. I was afraid he would waste it, and only had two more boxes. So I held on to the box intending him to take a pinch like I had just done. Instead he grabbed the box and emptied it in his mouth. Swallowed it in one gulp. Then he licked the box inside with his tongue.

    After a few minutes his eyes began to roll over in his head, he was looking straight up. I could see he was sick. Then he grabbed my coffee can that was quite cold by this time, he emptied that in his mouth, grounds and all. That did no good. He stuck his head between his legs and rolled forwards a few times away from me. Then he began to squeal like a stuck pig. I grabbed my rifle. I said to myself, "This is it. If he comes for me I will shoot him plumb between his eyes." But he started for the spring, he wanted water. I packed my sleeping bag in my pack sack with the few cans I had left. The young fellow ran over to his mother. Then she began to squeal. I started for the opening in the wall — and I just made it. The old lady was right behind me. I fired one shot at the rock over her head.

    I guess she had never seen a rifle fired before. She turned and ran inside the wall. I injected another shell in the barrel of my rifle and started downhill, looking back over my shoulder every so often to see if they were coming. I was in a canyon, and good travelling and I made fast time. Must have made three miles in some world record time. I came to a turn in the canyon and I had the sun on my left, that meant I was going south, and the canyon turned west. I decided to climb the ridge ahead of me. I knew that I must have two mountain ridges between me and salt water and by climbing this ridge I would have a good view of this canyon, so I could see if the Sasquatch were coming after me. I had a light pack and was making good time up this hill. I stopped soon after to look back to where I came from, but nobody followed me. As I came over the ridge I could see Mt. Baker, then I knew I was going in the right direction.

    I was hungry and tired. I opened my packsack to see what I had to eat. I decided to rest here for a while. I had a good view of the mountain side, and if the old man was coming I had the advantage because I was up above him. To get me he would have to come up a steep hill. And that might not be so easy after stopping a few 30-30 bullets. I had made up my mind this was my last chance, and this would be a fight to the finish . I rested here for two hours. It was 3:00 p.m. when I started down the mountain side. It was nice going, not too steep and not too much underbrush.

    When I got near the bottom, I shot a big blue grouse. She was sitting on a windfall, looking right at me, only a hundred feet away. I shot her neck right off.

    I made it down the creek at the bottom of this canyon. I felt I was safe now. I made a fire between two big boulders, roasted the grouse. Next morning when I woke up, I was feeling terrible. My feet were sore from dirty socks. My legs were sore, my stomach was upset from that grouse that I ate the night before. I was not too sure I was going to make it up that mountain. I finally made the top, but it took me six hours to get there. It was cloudy, visibility about a mile.

    I knew I had to go down hill. After about two hours I got down to the heavy timber and sat down to rest. I could hear a motor running hard at times, then stop. I listened to this for a while and decided the sound was from a gas donkey. Someone was logging in the neighborhood.

    I told them I was a prospector and was lost . I did not like to tell them I had been kidnapped by a Sasquatch, as if I had told them, they would probably have said, he is crazy too.

    The following day I went down from this camp on Salmon Arm Branch of Sechelt Inlet. From there I got the Union Boat back to Vancouver. That was my last prospecting trip, and my only experience with what is known as Sasquatches. I know that in 1924 there were four Sasquatches living, it might be only two now. The old man and the old lady might be dead by this time.

    From: Sasquatch: The Apes Among Us by John Green

    (1978, B.C. Canada: Hancock House)

    EHT Emergent Homin Theory Document PDF below

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    The great Cambrian unconformity

    My first field trip from the Geology Department at the University of Birmingham in autumn 1964 was located within hooter distance of the giant British Leyland car plant at Longbridge. It involved a rubbish-filled linear quarry behind a row of shops on the main road through south Birmingham. Not very prepossessing but it clearly exposed a white quartzite, which we were told was a beach deposit laid down by a massive marine transgression at the start of the Cambrian. An hour later we were shown an equally grim exposure of weathered volcanic rocks in the Lickey Hills they were a sort of purple brown, and said to be Precambrian in age. Not an excellent beginning to a career, but from time to time other Cambrian quartzites sitting unconformably on Precambrian rocks entered our field curriculum: in the West Midlands, Welsh Borders and much further afield in NW Scotland, as it transpired on what had been two separate continental masses of Avalonia and Laurentia. This had possibly been a global marine transgression.

    In North America, then the Laurentian continent, what John Wesley Powell dubbed the Great Unconformity in the Grand Canyon has as its counterpart to the Lickey Quartzite the thrillingly named Tonto Group of the Lower Cambrian resting on the Vishnu Schists that are more than a billion years older. Part of the Sauk Sequence, the Tonto Group is, sadly, not accompanied by the Lone Ranger Group, but the Cambrian marine transgression crops out across the continent. In fact it was a phenomenon common to all the modern continents. Global sea level rose relative to the freeboard of the continents then existing. A recent study has established the timing for the Great Unconformity in the Grand Canyon by dating detrital zircons above and below the unconformity (Karlstrom, K, et al. 2018. Cambrian Sauk transgression in the Grand Canyon region redefined by detrital zircons. Nature Geoscience, v. 11, p. 438-443 doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0131-7). Rather than starting at the outset of the Cambria at 542 Ma, the marine transgression was a protracted affair that began around 527 Ma with flooding reaching a maximum at the end of the Cambrian.

    Extensive flooding of the continents at the end of the Cambrian (credit: Ron Blakey , Colorado Plateau Geosystems)

    It seems most likely that the associated global rise in sea level relative to the continents was a response to the break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent by considerable sea-floor spreading. The young ocean floor, having yet to cool to an equilibrium temperature, would have had reduced density so that the average depth of the ocean basins decreased, thereby flooding the continents. The creation of vast shallow seas across the continents has been suggested to have been a major factor in the explosive evolution of Cambrian shelly faunas, partly by expanding the range of ecological niches and partly due to increased release of calcium ions to to seawater as a result of chemical weathering.

    A fully revised edition of Steve Drury’s book Stepping Stones: The Making of Our Home World can now be downloaded as a free eBook

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    Where Does Neanderthal Fit in the Bible – Update

    This blog presents several additional points to support the notion that Neanderthal is antediluvian man, i.e. those who lived before the Biblical flood. In 2012, we presented evidence, based on partial mitochondrial DNA sequences, that Neanderthal is indeed our direct, antediluvian ancestor 1 . We now have more evidence that solidifies our position. When Neanderthal fossils were discovered in the mid-1800s, Neanderthals were portrayed as ignorant ape-men, but now with the advent of DNA sequencing, they are being portrayed quite differently. More and more they are being portrayed as fully human like us. They are seizing their rightful position in the history of man: our direct line ancestors: the sons and daughters of Adam who lived before the global flood. The following points should be considered in defense of our stance:

    Human Speech

    It has been found that the human variation of the FOXP2 gene is present in Neanderthal. 2 This FOXP2 gene found in Neanderthal is identical to that of humans living today this is significant in that FOXP2 plays a major role in human speech 3 , separating us from the animal kingdom. This finding coupled with the fact that Neanderthals had brains larger than present-day humans 4 could suggest that they were more articulate than we.

    Genetic SimilarityThe present-day human and Neanderthal genomes appear to be at least 99.5% identical 5 . This difference is statistically the same as some of the latest estimates of genetic differences within the present-day human genome (99.5%) 6 . Clearly Neanderthal is fully human however, since his DNA markers do not exactly align with any present-day family groups or any post-flood family groups, he must be placed as antediluvian man, our pre-flood ancestor. Note: these DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphism-SNPs) constitute only 0.3% of the human genome 7 and are useful in determining parentage.

    Y-chromosome and mitochondrial sequences

    To better understand how the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA supports our position, consider our version of the human family tree:

    Figure 1. Human Family Tree

    The family tree above shows that the roots of the tree represent the Neanderthals the stump represents Noah and his family and the branches and leaves represent us, the present-day nations and family groups. The trunk of the tree represents the genetic reset performed by God during or just after the flood this reset set in motion human DNA compatible with the new ecosystem and lifespan 11 . Neanderthal fossils have been found in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Croatia, Russia, Siberia, Iraq, Israel, Belgium, and Uzbekistan. These Neanderthals are all offspring of Adam and Eve. The Neanderthals died in the flood with the exception of Noah and his family. Since the post-flood ecosystem and human lifespan were much different than the original ecosystem and lifespan, God performed a genetic reset preparing humanity for the new environment and lifespan. One would expect that human DNA sequences prior to Noah and his family would be very similar, but not align exactly with any post-flood nation or family group. And they don’t.

    A portion of Y-chromosome data has been extracted from Neanderthal fossils. As expected, these sequences do not align exactly with any modern man Y-chromosome nation or family group 8 . If they did, one would conclude that Neanderthal was post-flood. But they do not, and, therefore, must be the root. This is a very significant finding for which we have been anxiously waiting. Now, we know that, like the mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosomal DNA shows that Neanderthals are fully human but are the roots of the tree, not the branches and leaves.

    Also, now that we have the full mitochondrial sequences, we find that they, like the Y-chromosome sequences, support our original conclusions: Neanderthal is antediluvian man.

    Ruddy/Rosy Complexion

    We, at Genesis and Genetics, have concluded that Adam and Eve had red hair and rosy complexions. This conclusion was reached due to the fact that God gave Adam his name which means “red.” The accompanying rosy complexion is compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere. Just lately, using advanced sequencing tools, scientists have found that two Neanderthal fossils had genes for red hair and ruddy complexions 9 . It is difficult to find Neanderthal DNA with these genes intact, so, as far as I know, these are the only two tested for red hair and rosy complexions. It is also, noteworthy that these Neanderthals came from two different locations: one from Spain and the other from Italy. Our model predicts that Neanderthal would, like Adam and Eve, require complexions compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere.

    Cannibalism

    A recent excavation of a site in Belgium has added evidence to the existing view that Neanderthals were sometimes cannibals 10 . There are accounts of modern human acts of cannibalism however, they overwhelmingly occur when humans are forced to choose between cannibalism and starvation. During the flood, the Bible implies that all humanity didn’t die at once, and some could have survived for many months in the water (Genesis 7:19-24). The Neanderthal, being very intelligent, would be in boats, on rafts, or clinging to the large floating mats of debris but faced with starvation they may very well have resorted to cannibalism. The caves, being the flood drainage pipes, would and do harbor the evidence of this cannibalism.

    Evidence continues to accumulate that Neanderthals were the offspring of Adam and Eve, and our pre-Noah ancestors. Our version of the human family tree is presented above had it not been for Adam’s sin, it would look quite different but Adam did sin and Noah found grace in the eyes of the Creator, thereby forming the bottleneck (family tree stump). Then God chose to make changes in human physiology, including reduced lifespan, all of which required a genetic reset (the trunk of the family tree). Here is a summary of the additional evidence for our version of the family tree:

    (1) Neanderthal has the FOXP2 gene identical to present-day humans indicating that they had human speech capabilities.

    (2) Neanderthal DNA signature is incongruous with any modern nation or family group. This is true for both Mitochondrial DNA (inherited from the mother) and Y-Chromosome DNA (inherited from the father). The only place available for Neanderthal on the family tree is the roots, our roots.

    (3) Neanderthal fossils show evidence of cannibalism. Human cannibalism has a history of occurring primarily when there is some catastrophic event which deprives them of food.

    (4) The Neanderthal DNA, so far tested, show evidence of red hair and ruddy complexions which would be compatible with the pre-flood atmosphere and the name God gave Adam.

    (5) The similarities of the present-day human and Neanderthal DNA coupled with the fact that they each have unique DNA markers, positions Neanderthal correctly in Biblical history as antediluvian man.

    Note: Our former work and evidence can be found here for the blog https://www.genesisandgenetics.org/2013/11/08/177/ and here for the technical paper https://www.genesisandgenetics.org/Neanderthal_Identity.pdf

    We will keep you posted as we find more evidence for our position. We do have more compelling evidence for our model which concerns Neanderthal and carbon dating. This will be published soon. You may subscribe here if you would like to be on our mailing list.

    Keywords: antediluvian, pre-flood man, Neanderthal, Neanderthal’s place in human history, Biblical Neanderthal, Neanderthal Bible, Bible Neanderthal, Neanderthal in the Bible


    On Place and Space and Their Histories

    Finally, the affective cultural investments around aDNA research differ from other types of population genetic research. aDNA is entangled with cultural imaginaries of prehistoric and mythic geographies, which need to be unpacked in order to understand how aDNA operates as part of larger cultural dynamics around science. The Denisovan hominin was enacted in relation to two places: Siberia and Melanesia. Both places are associated, respectively, with distinctly colonial imaginaries of harsh life and exotic authenticity. While these imaginaries did not explicitly organize the scientific articles, they made the announcement of the Siberian home of the Denisovan and the mysterious hominin’s travels in Melanesia resonate with longstanding cultural fantasies. Such fantasies rendered the discovery of the Denisovan an appealing narrative involving adventurous life, lost species, interspecies encounters, evolutionary struggle for life, and eventual success of modern humans. These imaginaries of space thus played a role in the making of the Denisovan as a culturally recognizable evolutionary entity.

    To begin with, Siberia embodies two significant histories. One concerns the rich prehistory of this vast region that reaches along the Arctic Sea from the borders of Europe to Mongolia. Siberia is known for its fossils, many of them preserved in permafrost for millennia. Perhaps the best known of the now extinct species is the woolly mammoth (Turner 2007). The nearly mythic animal lived especially in northern Siberia above the Arctic Circle until about 10,000 years ago. Its massive size and simultaneous existence with prehistoric hominins has made it a symbol of the fantasized masculine bravery of prehistoric hominin hunters. Its imagined physiological majesty suggested danger as well as ultimate human triumph and survival.

    The other history is an explicitly political one: Siberia is widely associated with political exile and imprisonment. Geographically in Asia, Siberia was annexed by Russia in the seventeenth century and has since been seen as embodying the shadowy margins of Europe. As part of the Russian Empire and subsequently the Soviet Union, Siberia operated as a place where leaders sent their political opponents to penal labor camps or exile (e.g., Khlevniuk 2004). Being “sent to Siberia” often meant in practice death from extended starvation, disease, and hard labor in dangerous conditions. Many indigenous peoples of Siberia were also displaced or suffered from the consequences of settler colonialist exploitation of natural resources (e.g., Sablin and Savelyeva 2011). This history has rendered Siberia symbolic of harsh life, endurance, danger, and struggle for survival. Because of its political history, it is also associated with secrecy: what happens in Siberia stays outside official public knowledge. Significantly, these imaginaries of isolation and hardship resonate with the discourses of Siberia as a desolate prehistoric site where early humans fought for their lives while hunting mammoths. Together, these two imaginaries imply that any hominin who lived in Siberia must have been strong in both body and mind.

    Melanesia, where the Denisovan DNA is most clearly present, is embedded in a different type of colonial past. Its neighboring archipelago, Indonesia, in particular was a place where nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century paleoanthropologists searched for fossils that would prove a “missing link” between modern humans and apes. The region turned out to be rich in hominin fossils. For example, beginning in the 1890s, Java became a source of several Homo erectus discoveries, giving rise to “Java Man” (Swisher, Curtis, and Lewin 2002). In 2004, more than a century later, scientists discovered in Java small-sized hominin fossils, named Homo floresiensis. Discoveries like these have rendered South East Asia and Melanesia an imagined world of lost hominins. These spatial imaginaries are echoed in the recent media coverage of Homo luzonensis, an ancient hominin discovered in the Philippines: a news story on the BBC website suggests that “human evolution in the region may have been a highly complicated affair, with three or more human species in the region at around the time our ancestors arrive” (Rincon 2019). Furthermore, the history of Western anthropology includes a number of studies of the indigenous cultures of Melanesia.

    Read in this context, the reports of interbreeding between Denisovans and ancestors of present-day Melanesians paralleled the nineteenth-century paleoanthropological search for a missing link on the islands of South East Asia and Melanesia—this time carried out through the tools of genetics. This parallelism subtly implied that the genetic connection between Denisovans and Melanesians might indeed provide answers to some of paleoanthropology’s oldest questions. Interestingly, Reich et al.’s genetic analysis tentatively suggested that the Denisovan genome may carry genetic traces of an even older hominin group, rooting Melanesia, by association, firmly in the imaginaries of hominin origins. At the same time, the idea of searching for the genetic secrets of hominin evolution in the Pacific Islands reinforced old colonial imaginaries of Melanesia as fundamentally foreign and exotic: a place that holds the secrets of human evolution yet cannot ever be fully known.

    These imaginaries of space linger in current discourses around the Denisovan. For example, a 2015 article in the National Geographic focusing on Denisova Cave echoes narratives of masculine bravery and struggle for survival. The text accounts how the Denisovan molar was initially mistaken for a tooth of a cave bear, and how scientists had to rule out DNA contamination by “ancient hyenas, which seem to have long prowled the cave” (Greshko 2015). The cave as a site of hominin struggle for survival is also reflected in how the text quotes the director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Svante Pääbo’s words: “It’s an amazing place…because it’s actually the only place in the world where we know that three different groups of humans with very different histories all lived.” At the same time, a 2016 article on the CNN news site appears mesmerized by Melanesia and Pacific Islanders (Strickland 2016). While the piece opens by exploring human genetic inheritance in general—“the traits we have in common with early humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, and how our histories crossed paths” (Strickland 2016 my emphasis)—the article quickly moves to positing Pacific Islanders as an evolutionary enigma and a key to the secrets of early hominin evolution. This colonial rhetoric of past-oriented indigeneity is reinforced visually by an immediately culturally recognizable image of Papua New Guineans on a wooden dinghy in a sunset.

    These examples show how aDNA becomes smoothly embedded within cultural imaginaries of space as it travels from high-throughput sequencing apparatuses to science journalism and public discourse. Crucially, the two regions in relation to which the Denisovan was constructed are mythic places in the Euro-American imperialist and colonialist imagination, an imagination that continues to organize discourses around science (TallBear 2013). These mythic resonances confirmed the idea that the Denisovan constituted a highly significant scientific discovery. They also gave epistemic authority to the very idea that aDNA provides a privileged and unmediated gateway to human evolutionary roots.


    Proteins dating back more than one million years have been extracted from some fossils, and could help to answer some difficult questions about archaic humans.

    Some time in the past 160,000 years or so, the remains of an ancient human ended up in a cave high on the Tibetan Plateau in China. Perhaps the individual died there, or parts were taken there by its kin or an animal scavenger. In just a few years, the flesh disappeared and the bones started to deteriorate. Then millennia dripped by. Glaciers retreated and then returned and retreated again, and all that was left behind was a bit of jawbone with some teeth. The bone gradually became coated in a mineral crust, and the DNA from this ancient ancestor was lost to time and weather. But some signal from the past persisted.

    Deep in the hominin’s teeth, proteins lingered, degraded but still identifiable. When scientists analysed them earlier this year, they detected collagen, a structural support protein found in bone and other tissues. And in its chemical signature was a single amino-acid variant that isn’t present in the collagen of modern humans or Neanderthals — instead, it flagged the jawbone as belonging to a member of the mysterious hominin group called Denisovans 1 . The discovery of a Denisovan in China was a major landmark. It was the first individual found outside Denisova Cave in Siberia, where all other remains of its kind had previously been identified. And the site’s location on the Tibetan Plateau — more than 3,000 metres above sea level — suggested that Denisovans had been able to live in very cold, low-oxygen environments.

    But the finding also marked another milestone: it was the first time that an ancient hominin had been identified using only proteins.

    It is one of the most striking discoveries yet for the fledgling field of palaeoproteomics, in which scientists analyse ancient proteins to answer questions about the history and evolution of humans and other animals. Proteins, which stick around in fossils for much longer than DNA does, could allow scientists to explore whole new eras of prehistory and use molecular tools to examine bones from a much broader part of the world than is currently possible, according to the field’s proponents.

    Mum’s a Neanderthal, Dad’s a Denisovan: First discovery of an ancient-human hybrid

    Previously, scientists had recovered proteins from 1.8-million-year-old animal teeth and a 3.8-million-year-old eggshell. Now, they hope that palaeoproteomics could be used to provide insights about other ancient hominin fossils that have lost all traces of DNA — from Homo erectus, which roamed parts of the world from about 1.9 million to 140,000 years ago, to Homo floresiensis, the diminutive ‘hobbit’ species that lived in Indonesia as recently as 60,000 years ago. By looking at variations in these proteins, scientists hope to answer long-standing questions about the evolution of ancient human groups, such as which lineages were direct ancestors of Homo sapiens. “I think that you can basically unlock the whole of the human tree,” says Matthew Collins, a bioarchaeologist at the University of Copenhagen who has been at the forefront of the field since the 1980s, when it consisted of just a handful of researchers.

    A coming of age

    Despite the excitement, some argue that researchers could struggle to paint a definitive picture of human history from the information that researchers can get out of proteins, which is limited compared with that obtainable from DNA. And many worry that palaeoproteomics in general might be susceptible to spurious results, stemming from issues such as contamination. “You see very good research, and then you see people that publish things that are just very strange, because they don’t think critically about the methods,” says Philipp Stockhammer, an archaeologist at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany.

    Over the past two decades, DNA retrieved from ancient fossils has transformed scientists’ understanding of human evolution. Analysis of the similarities and differences in the DNA of different hominin groups has allowed researchers to map out the tangled family tree in a way that was previously not possible. And genetic material has led to some major finds, such as the discovery of Denisovans in the first place.

    But glaring gaps remain in that picture. DNA has been sequenced from just three groups of hominin: Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo sapiens, mostly from specimens that are less than 100,000 years old (a notable exception is a pair of 430,000-year-old early Neanderthals from Spain 2 ). Go a few hundred thousand years further back, and things get much murkier. This was a time period when a lot of exciting things were happening, says Frido Welker, a molecular anthropologist at the University of Copenhagen. It’s when Denisovans and Neanderthals branched off from the lineage that would become modern humans, for example. But it remains a hazy part of human history. Researchers don’t know, for instance, whether the ancient hominin Homo heidelbergensis, which lived around 700,000–200,000 years ago, was an ancestor of both H. sapiens and Neanderthals or part of only the Neanderthal branch, as some have suggested. “A lot of that happens beyond the reach of ancient DNA,” says Welker.

    Go back one million years or more, and things get even less clear. H. erectus, for example, first emerged in Africa around 1.9 million years ago, but without DNA evidence, it remains uncertain exactly how it is related to later hominins, including H. sapiens.

    Ancient DNA has also left geographical blind spots. DNA degrades faster in warm environments, so although a 100,000-year-old specimen found in a cold Siberian cave might still harbour genetic material, a fossil that has spent that long in the heat of Africa or southeast Asia generally will not. As a result, little is known about the genetics of even relatively recent hominins from these regions, such as H. floresiensis.

    Now researchers are hoping that protein analysis might begin to fill in some of those blanks. The idea is not new: as early as the 1950s, researchers had reported finding amino acids in fossils. But for a long time, the technology needed to sequence ancient proteins just didn’t exist. “For most of my career, I honestly, genuinely believed that we would not be able to recover ancient protein sequences,” says Collins.

    That changed in the 2000s, after researchers realized that mass spectrometry — a technique used to study modern proteins — could also be applied to ancient proteins. Mass spectrometry essentially involves breaking down proteins into their constituent peptides (short chains of amino acids) and analysing their masses to deduce their chemical make-up.

    Divided by DNA: The uneasy relationship between archaeology and ancient genomics

    Researchers have used this method to sift through hundreds of bone fragments to identify the types of animal they came from. In this specific approach, called zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry or ZooMS, researchers analyse one kind of collagen. The mass of collagen’s components differs in various groups and species, providing a characteristic fingerprint that allows researchers to identify the bone’s source.

    ZooMS was used in a 2016 paper 3 to identify one hominin bone among thousands of fragments from Denisova Cave — a bone that DNA analysis would later show belonged to a hybrid individual, nicknamed Denny, with a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. Even with that result alone, ancient protein analysis had already substantially expanded our view of human evolution, says population geneticist Pontus Skoglund at the Francis Crick Institute in London. Katerina Douka, an archaeologist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, is now using the technique to search through 40,000 unidentified bone fragments from Asia in the hope of uncovering more ancient hominins.

    But ZooMS paints a picture only in broad brushstrokes. Once a bone is identified as belonging to a hominin, for example, other techniques are needed to delve deeper. So others have turned to shotgun proteomics, which aims to identify all the protein sequences in a sample — its proteome. The composition of the proteome depends on the kind of tissue being examined, but will often include various forms of collagen. This method spits out thousands of signals, which makes it much more informative than ZooMS, says Douka, but also trickier to interpret. By matching these signals to known sequences in databases, researchers can identify the exact sequences of collagen or other proteins in their sample.

    Scientists can then compare this newly determined protein sequence to the same protein from other hominin groups, looking for similarities and differences in individual amino acids that will help to place the hominin on the family tree. This is similar to how ancient-DNA researchers look at single-letter variations in genetic sequences.

    Filling in the gaps

    Although researchers had used protein analysis alongside ancient DNA sequencing before 4 , the Tibetan Denisovan was the first ancient hominin for which proteins alone were analysed — and others could soon follow (see ‘Getting fossils to speak’). A look at the protein sequences from H. heidelbergensis, for example, could clarify its relationship to H. sapiens and Neanderthals.

    Debates have swirled for a decade and a half over the nature of H. floresiensis, remains of which were discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003. Its relationship to other hominins is unclear, with suggestions that it could be a dwarf descendant of H. erectus, or perhaps even that it evolved from the Australopithecus genus that is more distantly related to modern humans. This group lived more than 2 million years ago, and counts the famous Lucy skeleton among its members.

    Proteomics could put that mystery to bed, says Collins. “I am utterly convinced that we have Homo floresiensis protein around, and it will be sequenceable, and it will tell us where that fits in the family tree,” he says. The same could be true of another small hominin, Homo luzonensis.Its bones and teeth were discovered in a cave on the island of Luzon in the Philippines several years ago, and reported on earlier this year 5 . Similarly to H. floresiensis, these samples have yielded no DNA. Armand Salvador Mijares, an archaeologist at the University of the Philippines in Quezon City, says that he is planning to send Welker an animal tooth from the cave where H. luzonensis was found, to test the viability of analysing proteins in ancient tropical materials.

    As researchers prepare to do more proteomic analysis on ancient hominins, work on other animals is already revealing much about their evolutionary relationships in the deep past.

    Siberia’s ancient ghost clan starts to surrender its secrets

    In a recent analysis, for example, Welker and his colleagues used proteomics to work out where the extinct rhinoceros Stephanorhinus fits on the rhino family tree. As reported in a preprint that has not yet been peer reviewed 6 , the team was able to extract proteins in remains from Dmanisi, Georgia, that were nearly 1.8 million years old. The pattern of amino-acid substitutions suggests that the animal was closely related to the extinct woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis).

    Whereas the proteins of the Tibetan Denisovan came from dentine, the bony tissue inside teeth, these Stephanorhinus proteins were locked away in the enamel that covers the tooth. This could be particularly useful for finding very old proteins, suggests Enrico Cappellini, a palaeoproteomics specialist at the University of Copenhagen and a co-author on the Stephanorhinus work. Enamel is the hardest material in the vertebrate body and acts as what Cappellini calls a closed system, preventing amino acids from leaching out. The 1.8-million-year-old date “doesn’t represent a limit”, he says.

    In fact, others have gone further back. Researchers have reported extracting collagen sequences from a 3.4-million-year-old camel found in the Arctic 7 . And in a 2016 paper, Beatrice Demarchi, a biomolecular archaeologist at the University of Turin, Italy, and her colleagues extracted and sequenced proteins from a 3.8-million-year-old ostrich eggshell 8 . This shell wasn’t preserved in a cold polar region: it came from a site in Tanzania, where the average annual air temperature is around 18 °C, says Demarchi. “You would not expect stuff to survive in such a hot environment,” she says. Hominin proteins might be recoverable from the same places, she adds: “We’ve got to try, don’t we?”

    Teething pains

    There are still hurdles to overcome before ancient proteins can bring the branches of the human evolutionary tree into focus. So far, researchers have been able to deduce the sequences of ancient hominin proteins fairly easily, because they already have DNA from Neanderthals, Denisovans and H. sapiens. This allows them to predict the protein sequences that are likely to appear in their mass-spectrometry signals. “You can identify fragments you expect to be there from known genome sequences, from either ancient organisms or present-day people, and look for them,” says Svante Pääbo, a palaeogeneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

    But as scientists look further back in time, they will need to work out the sequence of those amino acids without a map. That’s an ongoing challenge for ancient proteomics, because proteins are degraded into small fragments, and samples are often contaminated with modern proteins, Pääbo says.

    Collins is confident that it can be done. He points to a 2015 paper 9 in which he, Welker and others mapped out the phylogenetic tree for South America’s native ungulates, a varied group of peculiar-looking mammals that went extinct around 12,000 years ago. With no DNA available from ungulate fossils, the team had to sequence collagen proteins from scratch to compare them with those of other animals. They found that two extinct native ungulates, Toxodon and Macrauchenia, were closely related to a group that includes horses and rhinos — and not, as some researchers had thought, the group Afrotheria, which includes elephants and manatees.

    Other limitations are more fundamental. Ancient teeth and bones contain a small number of proteins, so there are relatively few chunks of information that can be used to identify a specimen. Analysis of the Tibetan Denisovan, for example, revealed sequences from eight different kinds of collagen protein, totalling slightly more than 2,000 amino acids. Just one of these amino acids differed from Neanderthal and modern human sequences, identifying the sample as Denisovan. That means that even if a researcher were able to sequence the proteins from a H. erectus specimen, for instance, there simply might not be enough information in the amino-acid sequences to say anything definitive about its relationship to modern or archaic humans. By comparison, a single ancient genome contains in the order of three million variants compared with any other genome, says Skoglund, and so is much more informative regarding evolution.

    And because proteins often perform crucial functions — forming the structure of bone, say — they don’t always change much as species evolve. Proteins that are specific to enamel, for instance, are exactly the same in Denisovans, H. sapiens and Neanderthals, so can’t be used to distinguish between these groups. Welker says, however, that these proteins do vary in other great apes, and could be more informative when it comes to older hominin groups.

    Still, researchers know very little about how protein sequences vary in populations of ancient humans. Scientists have sequenced only a single Denisovan genome, for example, which means that to identify the Tibetan Denisovan, the team compared the protein sequences to just one other member of that group. It could be that other Denisovans had different variants. “Many geneticists are quite sceptical of the methodology, but I think it’s because they have come a long way in understanding genomic variation in ancient populations,” says Douka.

    Learning from the past

    There are other challenges, too. Some researchers are concerned that the broader buzz around palaeoproteomics could result in the field falling into the same traps as the ancient-DNA field did 20 years ago. Many apparently exciting results from the 1990s and early 2000s — the discovery of DNA from dinosaurs or insects trapped in amber, for example — later turned out to be false because they were products of contamination or other methodological errors. “I wouldn’t be surprised if this happens to the proteomics world,” says Douka.

    Those leading the way in the field are aware of these problems, and many researchers are making concerted efforts to create a robust science. Among them is Jessica Hendy, an archaeologist at the University of York, UK, who is pioneering the use of proteins to study the diet of early humans. In a 2018 paper, Hendy and her colleagues identified proteins in 8,000-year-old ceramics from Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey, which revealed that the ancient inhabitants ate various plants and animals, and even processed milk into whey 10 .

    “This technique is so interesting and so fascinating and is really getting a lot of attention, especially right now,” Hendy says. “We really need to be moving carefully,” she adds. Together with Welker, Hendy is lead author on a paper outlining best practices for the field, from avoiding contamination to sharing data in public repositories 11 .

    Hendy adds that there needs to be more basic research into how proteins survive and degrade over long timescales. This kind of research might not make headlines, she says, but can give researchers much more confidence in their results. She points to Demarchi’s work as an example: Demarchi found that the proteins in her 3.8-million-year-old eggshell had bound to the surface of the mineral crystals in the shell, essentially freezing them in place. “What’s cool about that is that it’s actually explaining why the proteins are surviving, which makes the finding so much more robust,” says Hendy.

    Even though there are still issues to sort out, progress in the field shows no signs of slowing. And whereas human evolution might get the most attention, scientists are using ancient proteomics in all kinds of ways, from studying markers of disease in the tartar of ancient teeth 12 , to investigating which animal skins were used to create medieval parchments 13 .

    Demarchi says she is excited by it all. And when it comes to working out the family trees of long-extinct organisms, she says, proteomics has the potential to make waves. “I don’t think I’ll see the end of it in my lifetime,” she says. “It’s going to be really quite big”.


    Early Humans Mated With Inbred Neanderthals — at a Cost

    Early interactions between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals constitute one of humanity's first dealings with an intelligent species other than ourselves — something to keep in mind as we ponder futuristic first contacts with alien life.

    Because things got a bit weird. We competed with the Neanderthals for resources, drove them into extinction, cannibalized their children and made necklaces out of their teeth. We also got it on with them. Our hominid bodies touched and so did our genes. Unfortunately for us, however, the Neanderthal genome was already crippled by inbreeding and mutation.

    They were a dying species, after all, restricted to a smaller breeding pool that, according to geneticists Kelley Harris and Rasmus Nielsen, lessened the effectiveness of natural selection. This may have allowed "weakly harmful mutations" to survive elimination from the gene pool.

    Then, between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, humans expanded into Neanderthal country and helped themselves to some of those genes. Two distinct genomes became one, though Neanderthals' genetic contribution to non-African humans (African homo sapiens never made it to European Neanderthal territory) is uneven and, in many cases, minuscule. Bad Neanderthal genes, once introduced into the larger human population, would have largely vanished due to natural selective rigors.

    In a study published in the journal GENETICS, Harris and Nielsen put these ideas to the test through the computer program SLiM (Simulating Evolution with Selection and Linkage) in order to simulate Neanderthal mutation accumulation and estimate the effect on human genomes.

    The researchers determined that genetically compromised Neanderthals were 40 percent less likely to pass on their genes, but this period of interspecies lovemaking would have still resulted in a 10 percent invasion of Neanderthal gene sequences to the human genome. Over the millennia to follow, exclusively intraspecies breeding brought that percentage down to the modern 2 percent.

    Most negative genetic attributes would have been lost within a few human generations, but Harris and Nielsen predict that interspecies breeding might have reduced non-African human reproductive fitness by an entire percentage point.

    What's more, the plight of the dwindling, inbred Neanderthal may have a lot to teach us about endangered species on modern Earth. As we fight to save reduced populations of endangered creatures, the researchers suggest care in preventing these shrunken, inbred gene pools from contaminating close evolutionary cousins with their stagnant genetics.



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